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《戰爭畫報》第9卷第214期,民國34年8月31日(主曆1945年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

已更新:2023年10月2日

《The War Illustrated》Vol 9 No.214, AUGUST 31, 1945, Edited by Sir John Alexander Hammerton

《戰爭畫報》第9卷第214期,民國34年8月31日(主曆1945年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》


《The War Illustrated》Vol 9 No.215, AUGUST 31, 1945, Edited by Sir John Alexander Hammerton 《戰爭畫報》第9卷第215期,民國34年8月31日(主曆1945年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
《The War Illustrated》Vol 9 No.214, AUGUST 31, 1945, Edited by Sir John Alexander Hammerton 《戰爭畫報》第9卷第214期,民國34年8月31日(主曆1945年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

SYMBOL OF CHINA'S RESURGENCE is this sentry at Kunming, capital of the Chinese border province of Yunnan, where the Burma Road from Lashio joins the highway to Chungking. Following the building of the Ledo Road and the re-opening of the Burma Road, the first convoy reached Kunming on February 1, 1945. Since then the famous roadway has streamed with supplies for Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's armies, reported on August 19, five days after Japan's surrender, to have entered Canton, chief commercial city (after Hone Kong) of southern China.






Thoughts on the Peace of Potsdam


The Berlinstance eutweighs that of the once celebrated Congress of Berlin (1878) as greatly history; its im Conference of 1945 will long be remembered as, one of the red letter events in world as the mighty forces of this World War have surpassed the military and naval resources of what by comparison was a local affair. Our well-known contributor, HENRY BAERLEIN, who. writes this article on the Conference, is a recognized authority on European politics, with intimate knowledge of the Balkans and Central European countries. See also facing page.


THE WORLD OF TOMORROW-BY THE BIG THREE


AT the conclusion of the Potsdam Conference (see illus, page 235) on August 2, 1945, the A Big Three's decisions on the future of Germany and on European problems in general were made known to the world in a document of over 6,000 words. Imposing on the Reich rules which ich are stern and drastic but which allow the Germans eventually to take their place among the free peoples of the world, the momentous declaration included the following: GERMANY.Allied Control Council in Berlin to retain supreme authority. The Reich to be completely disarmed and demilitarized. All German war industries eliminated or controlled. No German central Government will be allowed to function for some time. Political parties permitted, but the electoral system will be developed only gradually. A beginning to be made with local elections...

REPARATIONS. Claims of the United Kingdom, the United States and other Allies (except the U.S.S.R.) to be met by industrial removals from Germany's westem zones. Russian and Polish claims will be met mainly from the Soviet zone of occupation. All removals to be completed within two years.

One Government wholly enraged against the Potsdam declarations is that of General Franco, for they feel bound," say the Big Three, to make it clear that they would not favour any application for membership of the United Nations' Organization put forward by the present Spanish Government, which having been founded with the support of the Axis Powers does not, in view of its origins its nature, its record and its close association with the aggressor States, possess the quali fications necessary to justify such member ship. Here, indeed, is plain speech.

FRONTIER CHANGES. Soviet claims to Königsberg and the northern triangle of East Prussia received the support of Britain and the U.S. Poland to assume administration of the rest of East Prussia besides all German territory to the east of the Oder-Neisse line. (See p. 265.) LONDON COUNCIL.-A Five-Power Council of Foreign Ministers to be set up with head- quarters in London, France and China invited to join. While London will be the permanent seat of the joint secretariat which the Council will form, meetings may be held by common consent in other Allied capitals as may be agreed upon from time to time to be drawn up by the Five-Power Council will include those TREATIES. Peace t with Italy and ex-safer tries in eastern Europe-as it is made possible.

WORLD ORGANIZATION.-Governments neutral during the War may join the United Nations organization-with the exception of the Franco régime in Spain.


ON July 26 an ultimatum to Japan for the unconditional surrender of all her armed forces was issued from Potsdam in the names of President Truman, Mr. Churchill, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek. Leaving the Japanese with "prompt and utter destruction" as the only alternative to unconditional surrender, the ultimatum was contained in 13 stinging paragraphs, admitting of no equivocation. The following are our terms," it began. "We will not deviate from them. There are no alternatives. We shall brook no delay." Among the conditions insisted upon were complete Japanese disarmament; the break-up of all armament industries; the elimination "for all time" of the influence of "those who have deceived and misled the people of Japan into embarking on world conquest"; the limiting of Japanese sovereignty to the islands of Honshu(本州), Hokkaido(北海道), Kyushu(九州), Shikoku(四國) "and such minor islands as we determine."


ANNOUNCING Soviet Russia's declaration of war on Japan on August 8, M. Molotov revealed that after Japan's refusal to surrender, the Allies submitted to the U.S.S.R. Government a proposal to join against Japanese aggression "and thus shorten the duration of the war, reduce the number of victims and facilitate speedy restoration of universal peace." Japanese acceptance of the Potsdam proposals (see page 258) was not finally transmitted to the Allies until late on August 14, when at midnight the British Prime Minister announced the end of the War.


They Laid the Foundations of the New Europe














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