《全臺輿圖》

已更新:7月19日

《全臺輿圖》,這部清末臺灣重要的文獻與古地圖,是在1879年臺灣兵備道夏獻綸主持下編繪完成的。《全臺輿圖》包含前後山總圖一幅,與縣廳分圖十一幅,共計十二幅地圖,連同文字說明裝訂為一冊。另出版有集結成單張大圖的《全臺前後山輿圖》,兩者為摹本關係。


The “General Taiwan Map of Guangxu” is an important antique map and reference of Taiwan in the end of the Ching dynasty. It was completed in 1879, under the officer of rectifying armed force in Taiwan Shia Sien-lun’s leadership. This map contains of a whole map of Taiwan and eleven other maps of separated prefectural areas. These twelve maps along with the textual descriptions were bound in a volume. Another publication of the ”Taiwan Chian-Hou-Shan map”, with large singletons of the prefectural areas, is the imitation of the “General Taiwan Map of Guangxu”.


General Taiwan Map of Guangxu
General Taiwan Map of Guangxu

1874年,日本藉口琉球船民遭臺灣原住民殺害,因而出兵臺灣,通稱牡丹社事件。當時日本引用國際法的概念,指稱臺灣山地為無主地,意圖以「無主地先佔」,給予清帝國很大的刺激。 《全臺輿圖》就是在這樣的背景下所產生。


當時在沈葆楨、丁日昌等人的主持下,一改過去清廷治理臺灣的消極政策,廢棄了行之近二百年的封山與渡台禁令,宣告「開山撫番」,在臺灣北部與東部添設府縣,對山地宣示主權。


本圖乃成為漢人所繪製的地圖中,第一次能完整涵蓋臺灣西部(前山)與東部(後山)者。本圖紀錄「開山撫番」與洋務運動的關鍵時刻下臺灣的地理環境,對於探討清末到日治時期臺灣環境的變遷,是一項珍貴的史料。 然而古地圖的測量精度與製圖典範和現代地圖不同。古地圖往往不夠準確,圖例設計不易辨識,文字模糊不清。對現代人來講,《全臺輿圖》可能很不容易閱讀。接下來,我們將以一系列的解說圖,帶領大家回到清末的臺灣。


In 1874, the Japanese invaded Taiwan by the excuse of the Paiwan aboriginals’ murder of 54 Ryukyuan sailors, which is known as the Mudan incident. The Japanese quoted the concept of the international law and viewed Taiwan mountains as no man’s land, and intended to make the prior occupation of a terra nullius, which astonished the Ching government badly. The “General Taiwan Map of Guangxu” was produced in such a context.


Shen Bao-jen and Ding Ri-chang were the men in charge at that time, they changed the Ching government’s passive policy toward Taiwan management and abandoned the implementation of mountain closing and sea crossing. The new policy of Mountain Development and Aborigine Pacification was adopted. Several prefectural offices were added in both northern and eastern Taiwan and the sovereignty declaration of the mountains were made then.


This was the first map, made by the Han Chinese people, to cover both Chian-Shan (western Taiwan) and Hou-Shan (eastern Taiwan) completely. This map is a record of Taiwan’s geographical environments at the critical moment of Mountain Development and Aborigine Pacification and Westernization Movement, and is viewed as a precious material for explaining the environmental transitions of Taiwan from Ching China to Japanese ruled period. However, the accuracy in measurement and the drawing model of the ancient maps are quite different from the present time. Inaccuracy is common in the ancient maps. Besides, the symbols may not be easily recognized, and the characters are blurred and indistinct. The “General Taiwan Map of Guangxu” could be hard for modern people to read. Here we are going to introduce a series of illustrations and bring you to Taiwan in the end of Ching dynasty.


(translated by BWP)


資料來源:

文化部國家文化資料庫

National Repository of Cultural Heritage, Ministry of Culture.

nrch.moc.gov.tw


The map of administrative regions of 1888
The map of administrative regions of 1888

The diagram of the main lines of the jungle road—Su Ao to Chi Lai, Hua Lien Harbor.
The diagram of the main lines of the jungle road—Su Ao to Chi Lai, Hua Lien Harbor.

Overlay of the General Taiwan Map of Guangxu and the modern measured coastline
Overlay of the General Taiwan Map of Guangxu and the modern measured coastline

The diagram of the main lines of the jungle road—Rinkiho- Posiko
The diagram of the main lines of the jungle road—Rinkiho- Posiko

The diagram of distribution of government offices
The diagram of distribution of government offices

he diagram of the main lines of the jungle road—Chishan- Beinan
he diagram of the main lines of the jungle road—Chishan- Beinan

The diagram of distribution of battalians
The diagram of distribution of battalians

The map of northern Hou-Shan (northern part of eastern Taiwan)
The map of northern Hou-Shan (northern part of eastern Taiwan)

The map of southern Hou-Shan map(southern part of eastern Taiwan)
The map of southern Hou-Shan map(southern part of eastern Taiwan)

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