1920(民國9年), CHINESE JUNKS(中國帆船), A BOOK OF DRAWINGS IN BLACK & WHITE BY IVON . A . DONNELLY, PUBLISHED BY KELLY AND WALSH LIMITED(上海)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
To those interested in marine art this book will be of great interest. The subject of the work is one which offers a vast field for either brush, pen or pencil artists and which does not appear to have received much attention hitherto. It can well be seen that Mr. Donnelly has studied his subject very carefully.
There is no other country in the world that has a larger variety of sailing craft (junks) than China. Each bay, inlet, cove, river, and lake builds a type of boat to suit its own requirements of trade, weather or harbourage, and it can be seen that in each case the design has been well thought out.
There are fewer hardier seamen than the Chinese junkman. His boat is built as a means of earning a livelihood and no consideration of sentiment has been allowed to influence him in giving his boat an appearance of smartness or comfort. Such paintings as it does receive is solely as a preservative plus a certain amount of decorative work that is necessary for Joss and superstition.
China's junks comprise the largest part of the countries Mercantile Marine. They are engaged chiefly in the Home Trade and seldom go further abroad than Korea, Taiwan, or the islands in the South China Sea. The Foreigner has never had occasion to take much interest in the junks as they have seldom had to use them for either travel or commerce.
A few of the chief points of interest in this large fleet are, that their design has in most cases not altered for thousands of years: that they have received but little official control or supervision by any such organization as a Board of Trade which would require them to have a certain standard of safety of travel but have been allowed to come and go unhindered after having paid a certain portage tax: that the advent of foreign vessels in China's waters has in no way influenced a change in design which shows either strict conservatism or perfection in original design.
The weather and ocean currents of the China Coast make its navigation by sailing craft no simple matter. During the winter there is the cold and bleak north-east monsoon. In the summer typhoons make navigation most dangerous. When one stops to consider that this large fleet of junks is sailed to and fro by men devoid of all scientific knowledge of navigation and who rely on their local knowledge for the safety of their voyages, it makes one admire their skilfulness as sailors. The only instrument of navigation used on these vessels is the old fashioned Chinese compass that is usually stowed away the recess of some locker and only brought out on occasions when land is lost sight of.
The records of piracy on the China seas and rivers make one shudder at their awfulness and cruelty which eclipses that of any other land. The chief victims of these crimes have been the junkmen who have sailed the various types of junks depicted in this volume.
The Author has supplied the public with an artistic little handbook of reference which will be of value and interest to all those who go down to the sea in ships. It is to be hoped that he will in the near future, be able to augment the volume by including boats and junks sailing on the rivers and inland waterways of China.
S. V. M.
SHANGHAI (上海), 10th May, 1920.(民國9年)
S. V. M.