The Floating Population in China: An Illustrated Record of the Junkmen and Their Boats on Sea and River By G. R. G. Worcester 1970
G.R.G Worcester (1890-1969) termed himself a sailor by profession. Born in England in 1890, he entered the Royal Navy in the days of sail and rounded the Horn as a midshipman. Although he turned his back on salt water in 1919, the balance of his professional life was spent within sight and sound of water of some sort. He left the Navy to join the Marine Department of the Chinese Maritime Customs Service, and during his thirty years as River Inspector he assisted in surveying, marking, and opening the Yangtze to steam navigation to a point 1,450 miles from the sea. In his wanderings up and down the coast and rivers of China, he developed a deep interest in, and affection for, the junkmen and their craft.
ASIN : B0006CTINM
出版者 : Vetch and Lee; 1st Ed.版 (1 1 月 1970)
語言 : English
Hardcover : 90 頁
The Bow of a Foochow Pole-junk
The Foochow Pole-junks, with their conspicuous cargo of poles, were the most decorative craft on the China Coast.
They were quite large vessels, 150 feet or more in length and proportionately beamy; and in the good old days, before the sail was driven off the seas by the internal combustion engine, the junk anchorages in the North and at Woosung and Shanghai would be full of them, moored in rows. Their high sterns and bold curves, with the sun glinting on their drying sails, were a thrilling sight moving even to a landsman.
While the distinctive feature of these junks was the stern decorated with highly-coloured paintings, the bow was probably the most characteristic. Here there was embellishment in the form of narrow bands of colours, green predominating. The oculi with their large, glaring black eyeballs, in white circles were very conspicuous; the eyeball in high relief projected nine inches beyond the level of the ship's side. Even the white of the eye was embossed, and the whole measured twenty inches in diameter.
The bow was of exceptionally strong construction so as to take the pounding of the seas. The two wings of the vessel converged sharply at the water-line and rose in a steep diverging curve to deck level, above which they curved abruptly back again: their horns rose to a height of ten feet above the main deck. This form of construction, viewed in profile, gave the bow of the junk a curious aspect not unlike the blunt nose of a fish, a similitude further heightened by the large oculi placed below. The resemblance was intentional for the junkmen claim that the first inspiration for this craft was from a monstrous fish, the teeth being at the cutwater, while the wings, forming the armature of the head, carried the eyes. The mast and sails represented the fins and the high stern the frisking tail.
The open space-measuring nine feet at deck level-within the wide flare of the bow wings, terminates in a heavy transverse stembeam laid over the deck planking and is iron covered. It is fitted with pin fair-leads for the cable.
For ponderous dignity the Foochow Pole-junks are unsurpassed. Chinese creativeness is at its highest in these craft, as shown in the ingenuity of the ship design and the seamanslip of the crew.
The Canoe of Botel Tobago
The lofty island of Botel Tobago lies out of sight at sea far east of Formosa. The nearest port of approach is Takow 打狗, on the west coast of Formosa Island. Remote from the outside world, it has escaped the attention of the nautical research student except for the inquisitive Japanese, who gave it the name of Kotosho.
The island is inhabited by 2,000 very peaceful and democratic people, who in their customs and superstitions are thought to resemble the Malays. They are mostly fishermen, whose boats and nets are their most cherished possessions. Nearly every family owns one or more canoes. Their boats seem to have much in common with the Mon Canoe of New Georgia Island and, to a lesser degree with the Lisi type, from the Solomon Islands. In spite of the islanders' primitive culture, their boats show a remarkably high standard of construction. The planks are held together initially by means of dowel-pins inserted into opposite edges. The frames are secured by ratan lashings passed through a transverse perforation in the rib itself. They are double-ended, plank-built canoe-type craft. Their bow and stern are alike and vary in size from 15 feet to double that length. They are rowed by pulling the oar rather than by pushing it, and the oarsmen sit on a movable rowing seat, which they take home at night."
They have a characteristic scheme of decoration of the sides. The design, which is more or less standard, is carved into the hull of the boat with a sharp chisel and painted in vivid colours of blue, white and red. The water-line area is painted red, the bottom usually white. Each of the eight panels on the sides of the canoe shows three human dancing figures. The design may have magic significance to ensure safety at sea.
此島上住有2,000名極度和平與民主的人民，其風俗習慣與傳統信仰被認為與馬來人十分相似。多數島民為漁夫，船和漁網是他們最珍貴的財產。幾乎每個家庭都至少擁有一艘小船。他們的船看起來跟新喬治亞島（New Georgia Island）的戰舟（Mon Canoe）十分相像，而比較沒那麼像索羅門群島的利西（Lisi）獨木舟。儘管島上居民的文化原始，他們的船隻則展現了相當高的建造水準。船板最初是用木釘（暗榫）插入相對的板緣接面的方式來接合；船的骨架藉由藤繩穿過肋架上的橫向木孔加以綁紮而固定。它們是屬於艏艉同形的、木板組合的、獨木舟形式的船隻，它們的船艏和船艉相似，大小則有十五英呎到二倍長度的不同尺寸變化。他們划槳的方式與其說是推槳，不如說是拉槳。槳手坐的是可拆卸的划船座，晚上時他們會將划船座帶回家。