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Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950

已更新:2023年4月21日

Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》


Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

中華民國第9任國防部部長 蔣經國 任期 民國54年1月25日—58年7月1日 (金門戰役16周年-20周年)


Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

INTRODUCTION

This is one of a series of publications produced under the auspices of the Military History Office, MAAG, China. First established in September 1965, the MAAG Military History Office, under the direction of Lt. Col. W. W. Whitson, has researched military campaigns on the China Mainland prior to 1950.


This volume is a translation of an outline history published by the War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China. It was jointly translated by Lt. Col. W. W. Whitson, Mr. Patrick Yang and Mr. Paul Lai. Maps were prepared by Mr. P.T. Chang.


No effort has been made to correct errors which may have been contained in the original Chinese language Outline History. This translation must therefore be considered only as a sketch, a very general treatment of campaigns on the Mainland between 1924 and 1950.


Readers who encounter errors of fact or map errors are urged to inform the Military History Office, Office of the Chief of Staff, Box 13, MAAG, China, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.


Taipei, Taiwan

1 September 1966


簡介

這是由駐華美國軍事援助技術團(簡稱:美軍顧問團)所主持的系列出版品之一,美軍顧問團軍事歷史辦公室最初設立於民國54年(主曆1965年)9月,在惠特森中校(Lt. Col. W. W. Whitson)的指導之下,對民國39年(主曆1950年)之前發生在中國大陸上的戰役進行調查研究。


本書乃是翻譯自中華民國國防部史政局出版的簡史,由惠特森中校、楊派翠先生(Patrick Yang)及賴保祿先生(Paul Lai)三人聯合翻譯,地圖則是由張P. T.先生(P. T. Chang)負責。


由於沒有對於原始中文史略中可能存在的錯誤進行勘誤,此本翻譯因此僅能視為一個概述,一個針對民國13至39年(主曆1924-50年)間,發生於中國大陸上的戰役非常粗略的論述。


建議發現史實錯誤或地圖錯置的讀者可以聯絡位在中華民國台灣省台北市的美軍顧問團,郵政信箱13號,參謀長辦公室下轄之軍事歷史辦公室。


台灣省台北市

民國55年(主曆1966年)9月1日


Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》


EASTERN CAMPAIGN & NORTHERN EXPEDITION


Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

ANTI-COMMUNIST CAMPAIGN








CENTRAL GOVERNMENT-COMMUNIST CAMPAIGN
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT-COMMUNIST CAMPAIGN

CENTRAL GOVERNMENT-COMMUNIST CAMPAIGN


CENTRAL GOVERNMENT-COMMUNIST CAMPAIGN
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT-COMMUNIST CAMPAIGN

Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
Military Campaigns in China, 1924-1950, War History Bureau, Ministry of National Defense, Republic of China, 1966(民國55年)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》














































38: THE EVACUATION OF HI-MAN ISLAND (Man 84)

Time:1 March - 26 April 1950.

Place:Hainan Island

Communist Force:11 Divisions and 2 Independent Brigades

Government Force:5 Corps and 2 Divisions


The government forces which retreated to Hainan Island from Kwang tung and Kwangsi were placed under command of the Hainan Defense General Headquarters. Under that GH were four route Corps commands in command of 5 Corps, 2 Independent Divisions and several air and naval units. The govemment forces started a mopping-up operation against the local Communist bands under Feng Pai-chu (馮白駒) on 1 March, inflicted heavy casualties on the Communists and captured Nan-lu-shih (南闆市) and Yu-po (烏波).


During the period 6 March to 17 March, Lin Piao sent some of his regiments and battalions from Lei-chou Peninsula to Lin-kao (3) (臨高), Hsin-ying-kang (新英港), the area south of Tan-s hien (4) (儋縣) and the area near Pai-ma-shih (白馬市) in order to rescue Feng's bands. As a result of the government ground, air and naval attacks, most of the Communist landing force was exterminated except a sma11 nortion of it, with about 300 men, moved into the mountains near Pa-chiao- tsun (芭蕉村) and linked up with Feng.


Under cover of fog and darkness on 16 April, the Communists launched a large-scale invasion by the main body of the 40th and 43rd Corps in about 400 junks and motor junks. About 200 of their junks were sunk by the Government Navy and about 10,000 Communist troops were killed or drawned. However, the remnants made a successful landing on the area between Lin-shih-kang (2) (林詩港) and Lin-kao-chiao (3) (臨高角) and out numbered the defenders. Government forces were actually being converged on when Feng Pai-chu's force with about 6,000 men moved out of the Wu-chih Mountain (13) (五指山) and the Nei-tung Mountain (內洞山) in several groups and reached the Fu-shan (12) (福山) and Pao-she (抱金) line.


At noon on 18 April, Fu-shan fell. The Communist 119th and 120th Divisions moved south from both sides of Lin-kao. A portion of Communist forces linked up with the local Communist bands northwest of Lin-kao. On the morning of 19 April, most of the members of the 64th Corps H and the 156th Division gave their lives during a retreat, About 7,000 Communist troops from Fu-shan-shih (12) moved east by the highway along the coast on that night. They captured those high rounds west of An-jen-shih (安仁市) on the morning of the 20th. Then their main force continued to move south.





39: THE HSI-CHANG CAMPAIGN (Map 85)(西昌戰役)

Time:6 March 27 March 1950

Place:The area near Hsi-chang of Sikang Province(西康省)

Communist Force: Approximately 130,000 troops.

Government Force: Aroximately 35,000 troops


Communist envelopment and retreated to Sikang Province. Up to early March 1950, about 35,000 troops had been rallied in the Hsi-chang (3) area under command of Hu Tsung-nan, Acting Chief of Political and Military Administration in S China, and also Ho Kuo-kuang, C-in-C of the Hsi-chang Garrison GHQ. After a reorganization, those forces became combat-ready and were disposed in Lu-ting (1) (瀘定). Fu-lin (2)(富林),Lei-po (10) (寧波),Ning-nan (6) (寧南),Hui-1i (5) (會理) and Yen-pien (4)(鹽邊) on the outskirts of Hsi-chang.


In order to destroy those government forces, the Communists massed about 130,000 troops, composed of regular Communist troops, government defecters and local Communist elements, on the other sides of the Ta-tu Ho (7) (大渡河) the Chin-sha Chiang (8) (金沙江) and the Ya-lung Chiang (9)(雅壠江). From both north and south, the Communists started to invade Lu-ting, Hui-11, Fu-lin and Ning-nan in early March but they met strong resistance by government forces. On the north, the Communists captured Lu-ting on 22 March and Fu-lin on



the 24th. The govemment 135th Division, the 1004th Regiment of the 3rd Corps and a portion of the 69th Corps suffered heavy casualties and had to retreat towards the south. The Communists crossed the Ta-tu Ho on the 25th and then advanced towards Hsi-chang (3).


On the south, the Communists took Ning-nan (6) on 22 March and Hui-li (5) on the 23rd. The government 2nd Regiment of the 1st Division, the 76th D ivision of the 2nd Corns and 4 battalions of the 124th Corps moved north in retreat. Then the Communist forces advanced towards Hsi-chang (3) from both directions. As the government troops were outnumbered, they abandoned Hsi-chang to avoid a decisive action and moved into the mountains to carry on guerrilla actions. The conventional warfare on the Mainland between Communist and govemment forces came to an end by that time. Then hot actions began one after another on those small islets off the SB coast of China Mainland.


Critique: As the rallied government forces in Sikang were outnumbered by the Communists, they lost the initiative. In order to survive, they had to move into the mountains to conduct guerrilla actions.

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