What You Should Know About China, Information of Importance to personnel of the United States Forces in the China Theater, 1945, Printed at the Indian Press Ltd, Calcutta.
你應當知道的中國：給在中國戰區之美國軍事人員的重要資訊。民國34年（主曆1945年），加爾各達，印度出版有限公司印製《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT CHINA was prepared prior to the Japanese surrender. Publication has been made, because of the continuing value of the contents. To you "Old China Hands" who are on your way home, as well as replacements just coming into the theater, this booklet has much to offer. No matter what your status may be, WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT CHINA will give you a better appreciation and understanding of the nation and the people that fought the Japanese to a virtual standstill during eight long years of war.
Before the war, American tourists paid a small fortune for a trip to China. They hired guides, rented cars, visited the beautiful old palaces, stayed in luxury hotels and went to all of the places and did all of the things for which Americans paid good money. No one knows how many of these famous places will be left when the Japs are finally driven out.
Few American tourists, however, have been in the Provinces of China which you see and live in, as a member of the United States Forces in the China Theater.
Because you are in the parts of China where few foreigners have been and foreign ways almost unknown, there are certain things you should know about this country and your place in it as an American soldier or officer.
This is not a guide book; it does not attempt to give all of the answers. Its purpose is to help you get along better with the Chinese people around you, and with whom you work, so that both of you can do a better job.
The Stilwell Road is one of the amazing engineering feats of the war. It brings much-needed supplies over the hump, usually equipment of a weight and size not always suitable for air lift.
Our Special Status
If you have been in the Pacific, Europe or the Mediterranean, you know that our job has been to lick the Japs and the Nazis with our men and our own equipment.
Now that America and her Allies have knocked out the Nazis, you know that the Army, Navy and Marines are going "all out" to finish up the Japs.
That is your job in China too-but in a very special way.
The majority of American troops are not up in the front lines in China fighting the Japs. With the exception of our Air Force, the Chinese are doing the holding and the fighting, hundreds of thousands of them, with Americans at the front aiding and advising. The Air Force is backing up the Chinese Army by bombing and strafing and doing the job superbly.
America's present position in China - and therefore yours is to aid China to keep fighting and keep those Jap Divisions busy, while our forces are pushing toward Tokyo in the Pacific.
Don't think of yourselves as "saviours" of China. We are here as allies, working toward a common goal to bend the Jap to his knees.
We are really guests in China." That puts you-and every other officer and en- listed man in the United States Forces in the China Theater in a very special status; that of a guest in China.
In order to be a tactful, popular guest in a strange country, there are certain things you must understand and specific rules based on theater policy which must be observed. Rule No. 1 is:
Act like a Guest in China
The China Theater Commander sets the example. Greeting a young Chinese lady at an Airport in the interior of China.
The Chinese kid is selling cigarettes, and the Lieutenant is having a good time trying to make a deal on a pack. After one try at a Chinese cig, however, you'll want to stick to the PX ration. Some of the labels may look the same, but the taste does not always satisfy.
Our Mission Vital To America
United States Forces are in China to help train and advise the Chinese Armies, and aid in supply- ing them, so that they can fight better for their country and for us. This saves American lives, it saves Chinese lives, it means killing more Japs and shortening the war.
It also makes you as an individual important to our total war effort in China. Whether you work behind a desk, drive a truck, act as liaison with or aid in training Chinese Armies, or carry out some other field assignment you can do Ame- rica's job in China a thousand times better and easier by making the Chinese like you and have confidence in your judgement, ability and personal behavior.
For this you must realize that every minute of the day hundreds of eyes are watching and judging the U. S. and what we claim it stands for-by watching and judging you.
You are their only measuring rod of "Mei Kuo," (America) just as the Chinese people you see are a large part of your idea of China. You can't escape it. That is why part of your task here is to live up to the best that America means to all of us. Close military, political and economic co-operation with China is our basic American policy; im- portant to you personally because it is important for the future of your country. It is cemented Logether only by a friendship based on understand- ing between individual Chinese and Americans.
A lasting peace, through international co-opera- tion and goodwill among the peoples of the earth, is what we want out of this war. The success of any international organization depends upon how well we understand the other peoples of the world and how well they understand us.
You are laying the groundwork for that under- standing and that goodwill.
So, doing everything possible to be a good Am- bassador for the United States, is also part of your mission. Thus in contacts with the Chinese-all Chinese and while you are in their country, remember Rule No. 2:
America is Judged by You. Be a Good Ambassador
Except for the San-Pans this could be the scene of a dozen places at home-but it isn't.
To Hell With What The Japs Want
America has been fighting the Japs since Pearl Harbor. China has been fighting them for eight years.
Of course China could have taken the "easy way". She could have accepted Japan's oft- repeated invitation to join the "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere ". She could have accepted Japan's "protection ".
China, however, chose to fight. She turned thumbs down on Japan's smooth proposals. With poor equipment, but with great spirit, she has harried and pinned down the Jap. Scores of China's cities have been ravaged; more than 5,000,000 of her soldiers and civilians have been killed.
The Japs realize what it means to them in this war, and what it can mean to the future of Asia and the world in the peace, to have China, with her population comprising a quarter of all the peoples on earth, friendly to America. Japanese propaganda-much of it crude but some of it clever is aimed at breaking up this friendship.
The enemy has had plenty of evidence to convince him that cooperation between the United States Forces and the Chinese Army means more dead
Japs, and plenty of live ones needed elsewhere, tied up in China.
The information that follows should be helpful in understanding China and the Chinese, and to hell with what the Japs want. Thus Rule No. 3 is:
Get along with the Chinese-and to hell with what the Japs want
This is what the Japs DO NOT want Lieutenant General A. C. Wedemeyer, Commanding General, U. S. Forces in the China Theater, is also Chief of Staff to the Generalissimo. This photo shows one of the frequent combined staff meetings. They upset the Jap no end-in more ways than one.
You might not visit the more glamorous parts of China you have seen in the movies, or read about, for some time, but there are still plenty of quaint and interesting scenes, such as this canal near Kunming.
This Is Not The China Of The Movies
You have seen the travelogues on China with the wide boulevards of Shanghai, the fine buildings of Hongkong, the golden-roofed palaces of Peiping, the beautiful temples, ancient gardens, lovely porcelains, delicate paintings and the charming scenes of Chinese life.
The Japs occupy those parts of China right now both the places famous for their beauty and the great ports. When you are in Kunming or Chung- king you are really in the ancient parts of China largely opened to modern life only in the past few years. The people are mostly local folks and the towns are swollen with thousands upon thousands of refugees, all kinds of people from all kinds of places. This is not the China you may have read about or seen in the movies.
Perhaps the Chinese clerk you see in the office used to be a successful business man in Shanghai or Canton, with servants and a car like yours at home. Now he is eking out a living and his greatest desire is to return to his birthplace and when he dies, be buried in the ground of his ancestors.
The laborer you see on the street may have come from thousands of miles away; his main interest in life is getting enough work to earn his daily "Bowl of rice ".
It is important to remind yourself once in a while that the country, and for the most part the people where Americans are stationed, are mostly "back country" folks, like you will find in some sections at home, plus refugees, many of whom are living from hand to mouth. They are poor what little they had, they have lost.
When a friendly crowd gathers on the street as you park your jeep, or someone just stops and stares at you, you must pinch yourself and realize that you are a foreigner to the Chinese, just as Chinese visiting America are foreigners to us. No wonder you are strange to most Chinese, your looks, customs, habits, dress, language, and methods of fighting and working are naturally foreign to them. In some instances, you may be the first American they have seen. You are still a curiosity in China.
This is particularly true in the part of the country where Americans are now living and working. If you understand these things, you will understand the local people, you won't be critical of others, and you will watch rule No. 4:
Don't be critical, Foreigner
You are still a curiosity in China. A crowd may quickly gather around your jeep for no reason at all but to stare at you. If you have a camera, as the Sergeant in the picture. you will be a double-feature. Take it with a smile and every- one will have a good time.
"They Could Learn Something From Brooklyn"
That's what one young American said when he saw Kunming, and couldn't find pure running water or wide paved streets and saw people in rags and kids without shoes.
The Chinese could probably learn something from Brooklyn-and no doubt they would like to. But when Kunming was laid out originally it was pretty good for its purpose a great frontier garrison post for the rich tribute in jade, ivory. precious stones, medicines, from the lands of southeast Asia to the Imperial Chinese court. It was ancient when Marco Polo passed through 750 years before the first GI arrived. Age sits heavily on most of the great cities in China.
What this American didn't realize was that China's ports are in Jap hands, and even if the Chinese Government were in a position to purchase civilian supplies and materials, it couldn't get them here. The only things that come over the Hump and up the Stilwell Road are vital for war.
Don't be fooled by Chinese dress or lack of it. No matter how shabby they might look, the Chinese are proud people and have a right to be. Theirsis the longest continuous culture still existing on the earth today. Archeology can tell us about Chinese life of 5,000 years ago-in many ways. similar to that of today.
China has given to the world paper and printing in the form of movable type; the Mariner's Compass; Tung oil, used in all varnishes, shellacs and lacquer; Chaulmoogra oil, the only known treatment for leprosy; the peach, the apricot and many other citrus fruits; playing cards; paper money even wallpaper, and the folding umbrella. Her works of art from the best periods have never been equalled.
The Chinese are a people with a great sense of personal dignity. The craftsman is proud of his job-and he wants to do it well.
The carrier with his load of from 90 to 100 pounds is proud of the fact that he can do his work travelling 30 to 40 miles per day.
The farmer is proud of his home even if its one room, with the animals and chickens there with the kids. If you can retain an innate sense of pride with rags on your shoulders and no shoes on your feet, that is the greatest dignity of all. The Chinese average man is anxious to better him- self and has done so in the more prosperous areas along the coast.
Remember that before you started for China you formed many impressions of the Chinese. Like- wise they had impressions of you. Fortunately they have gained good impressions in the past, for our charitable foundations have built hospitals and sent doctors to China. Americans have brought Christianity, sanitation and learning to many parts of the country, and the American people have been whole-hearted and generous in their contributions to Chinese War Relief.
The people of China have been waiting for us to come for a long time. They know the fine record that American fighting forces have made across the world. They know that our leaders, speaking for the American people, long ago took China's battle as our battle. Long before you hit China, you and your buddies were called "ding hao "- very good".
And then the Yanks in China have done some pretty nice things in addition to their routine military duties. While it is true that there has been disagreement and bad feeling no one's trying to kid you along it is also true that the Chinese newspapers have carried many incidents illustrating the fine personal actions of American forces in the Theater.
Our neatness, our generosity, our frank curiosity, our obedience to military rules, our promptness in taking traffic victims to the hospital, our working efficiency, our readiness to laugh-these are some of the things, that have made the American forces liked in the China Theater.
You can break down much of this goodwill-yes, YOU, the individual officer or enlisted man-if you do not act the part of a gentleman under any and all circumstances. Perhaps as the young American said, the Chinese could learn something from Brooklyn, but, at any rate, let's behave so that when we pull out of here the citizens are going to say, "Come back any time. You've shown us that 'Asia only for the Asiatics' is a lot of bunk." This makes rule No. 5 all-important:
Be a Gentleman-First, Last and Always
"Street scene" in China, with the usual crowd of friendly jeep-gazers.
Speaking of faces, this Chinese reflects the wisdom of the ages in his crackled smile. He might not look like Fifth Avenue, but he has a quiet dignity all his own. He can prob- ably out-work you five-to-one, but you wouldn't last very long on his diet.
"Face" is one of the most important things you. have to learn if you are going to win friends and influence people in the Orient.
And "face" is not the personal property of the Chinese. If you stop and think a moment, you'll see that we have "face" just like the Chinese- we just don't call it that.
If you get bawled out in front of someone else, you feel pretty cheap. The same would be true if you tried to put over a fast one and then had to back down. You say you have been humiliated- the Chinese says you have lost "face".
Similarly, when you give a large donation to the Red Cross at home, the Chinese would say you gained "face". When an American company, for example, promotes an incompetent manager to the post of vice-president, they may be getting him out of the way, but at the same time they are saving his "face".
If you laugh at the Chinese, criticize or make fun, yell at them from your jeep to clear the way, try to order them around in an overbearing manner or make promises you can't keep, then you'll lose "face" and you may make them lose "face".
You lose "face" if you whistle at a girl, conduct yourself in an undignified manner, get drunk, are seen with a woman of questionable reputation-or probably most important of all-lose your temper. You cause the Chinese to lose "face" if you embrass them or if you do not act like a gentleman in their presence.
So you see, "face" is nothing new-it's funda- mentally the same the world over. But it's immensely important to the Chinese. Being an American, you automatically have "face" in China. That's quite a compliment to you and your country. Don't do anything that would make you unworthy of it. You'll get along much better in China if you keep to Rule No. 6:
Don't Lose "Face"-Help the Chinese to keep "Face"
These Chinese kids haven't got very much, but by and large, they are happy, even though the youngster at this moment is letting out a yell. He was probably afraid of the camera, having never seen one before.
Ask Any San Franciscan
San Francisco has one of the oldest and largest Chinese populations outside of Asia. San Franciscan what he thinks about the Chinese, and he will usually tell you he not only likes them, but that they are the most honest of all peoples. He knows the Chinese pay their debts, and that their word is as good as their bond.
But take the GI, who said at an airport in China the other day:
"I don't like the Chinese."
"Why not?" asked his companion.
"I just don't like them-they're not what I expected."
"What's the trouble?"
"Well," said the soldier, "a Chinese stole my watch. I left it in the washroom and when I came back it was gone. I don't like the Chinese."
Sure, some Chinese steal, just as some Americans and English and all other kinds of people steal. Unfortunately we've had thieves from the beginning of time, and our jails back home are still bulging with those of the American variety, a goodly supply of murderers, embezzlers, and other kinds of criminals included. Leave a watch in most washrooms in America-and try to find it fifteen minutes later.
It's no different in China - yes, it is a little different. The people of Free China, the back country people, the refugees the Japs have driven from their homes, and the others who have crept through the Jap lines, are poor desperately poor.
The watch that you are careless enough to leave around may represent three or four years wages to the average Chinese. That's a pretty big temptation to put before a half-starved coolie, or a lad whose monthly earning is equivalent to a few dollars gold. It can mean food for him and his family for months.
They may take it for granted that you don't prize your things too highly if you are careless where you leave them. They might snitch some- thing, perhaps even as you have done when you were a kid.
So don't leave things around carelessly where you can tempt others who have so little. Lock your stuff up. Watch your luggage just as care- fully as you would travelling through any strange country. If you lose something, it may well be your own fault, but not if you follow Rule No. 7:
Don't tempt-Keep your Stuff Locked Up
City scene. Interesting, yes and a bit different from San Francisco. But dangerous-if you should eat any food or drink any unboiled water in one of the little cafes you will find in places like this.
What About Politics In China?
Yes, what about politics? You are not in China to get into politics or discuss politics.
There will be plenty of time for you to talk polities when you get back to your home town- and there may be more need for it there than here. It is not question of freedom of discussion, it is one of knowing that you are talking about-and who can become "expert" on Chinese politics in a few months? Loose talk can only jeopardize our relations with the Chinese Government.
In fact, by order of the Commanding General, U.S. Forces, China Theater, you are NOT to discuss Chinese politics, or make any promises or give aid to any particular group or party, except on Army orders.
In this matter, you are concerned with only one fact: The Chinese Government is our ally, and by our choice.
We are damned glad that they are with us, that they have raised millions of men to fight the Japs, and have caused the Japs plenty of grief.
While you are in China your policy-as far as Chinese political questions are concerned is to carefully follow the orders of the Commanding General, embodied in four words in Rule No. 8:
Don't Talk Chinese Politics
The best kind of politics are those that kill Japs. The Chinese Government (Republic of China) is our ally, and by our choice, and we're damn glad they are with us and have caused the Japs plenty of trouble.
You'll find that most of the girls in China do a man's work. However, this one seems to like it. Did you ever try polling a good-sized boat down-or up-a river all day long?
Something About The Girls
There are all kinds of girls in China, just as there are all kinds of girls back home.
The war, of course, has let down many of the old customs. Normally you wouldn't have to "worry" about Chinese girls. But with the war and the loosening of all barriers, you'll find "vic- tory girls" and their sisters in China, just as you will in the States. Many of the Chinese girls whom you will be fortunate enough to meet socially speak good English and have an excellent education and you'll find them interesting and charming. You'll get along best, of course, by treating them with respect and being a gentleman.
Then there's the "other kind," and brother- look out! It may be difficult for you to tell some- times, because you are a stranger and won't know the Chinese very well, and a pretty girl may look
-"just like a pretty girl." If you can "pick her up"; if she is out at night alone; sitting around a cafe; an inmate of a house, or just "easy to date" brother, look out!....
You must take all the precautions-before and after. Still you may get a disease followed by various kinds of complications, which can stay with you all of your life despite the best medical care of the Army or your own doctor at home.
The Surgeon, China Theater, reports that many of these women have from two to three kinds of venereal diseases at the same time.
The medics have not yet found one prostitute who is completely free of disease and the cure for some hasn't been found yet, despite sulfa and penicillin.
There have been men in this theater who, despite all of the best medical care, will be suffering for the rest of their days with recurring disease. There have been men who, when drunk, have been dragged out of some unspeakable dives; and when they sobered up, they lived to regret a night's fun that turned into a lifetime of tragedy. It is not a question of having to do it-don't. Keep your head and hold your liquor and also keep Rule No. 9 where you won't forget it:
If you can make her-it's 1000 to one she has VD(Venereal Disease)
This is rather a placid, quiet scene showing the great Yangtze River flowing past Chungking. But typhus and cholera breed in those waters, and plenty of other dangerous germs beyond the shore-so watch your health precautions.
How To Stay Healthy In China
China has all the diseases that exist in the other countries of the Orient.
They come to man in two chief ways: first, by what you take in of your own free will, and second, by what bites you when you are not looking.
While you cannot "go native" entirely, there are some tricks that you can pick up locally from the folks that have lived in China, picked up from generation to generation over 4000 to 5000 years.
Most of these precautions apply to food, i.e., what you take in of your own free will. If you follow the Chinese rules plus those of the Army, you can't miss. You will go back home without. the discomforting traces of dysentary, cholera and other things that can weaken you for years.
First, never drink water unless it has been boiled at least ten minutes. Halazone pills are not enough to kill these germs-you have to boil them to death. If you don't like boiled water alone, throw in some tea leaves.
Second, never eat any cold food. This includes candy, ice cream and cakes bought in a civilian store, and don't let your Army food or stuff sent from home lie around open to flies. Flies carry dysentary, typhoid and cholera by making a short hop from the toilet to your candy bar or drinking glass. When your food is cooked, the germs are killed.
Third, never eat in any civilian restaurant which doesn't have an "In bounds" sign.
In brief, eat only hot food, eat only in an IN BOUNDS restaurant, but preferably an Army mess, and never drink water that hasn't been boiled.
If you are out in the field and find it necessary to eat in a restaurant, there are certain rules to follow ask the proprietor for a bowl of boiling water; immerse your dishes and utensils in this boiling water until they have been scalded. If you cannot get the boss to understand you, the hot tea will do the trick only pour it away when you finish washing everything.
Do not eat any kind of food, bread for example. which could have been touched or handled by the waiter. Then stick to hot food and boiled water. If possible, don't drink any water at all in a restaurant.
You won't want to bathe in most of the streams. Unless you are in the wildest mountains, most of the streams and rivers are fed by the water running off the land from the house toilets and the fields. The soil is fertilized by human waste, much of it from infected people.
That is why the Chinese boil their water before drinking and salads are not on the bill of fare. That is why they always peel their fruit-all of it.
That is why the American Maryknoll Fathers in South China forbid their priests from swimmnig in the country streams several of their healthy young men have died of Cholera after such swims.
If you want to avoid a lot of grief, remember Rule No. 10:
Eat only hot food-drink only boiled water and stick to the Army mess
Malaria Is There, Too
The other two things you have to watch out for are Malaria and Venereal Disease. The latter has already been mentioned the woods are full of it, enough said.
The most common disease from getting bitten in China is, of course, malaria, carried by the mos- quito.
You can get typhus from fleas, but bed bugs which are far more common will not generally in- fect you.
The mosquito is your enemy. That means sleep- ing under a net without holes; taking Atabrine as prescribed at your installation; keeping your sleeves rolled down and socks on, if you are out at night. Use repellent on your hands and face, wrists and forearms if you are going to sit on the porch, attend an outdoor movie, or go for a walk after dark. Never go out in shorts after 6:00 P.M. or bathe outside. And both at "home" and in the field, stay close to Rule No. 11:
Watch your malaria precautions
This was good news to the Chinese, too. They knew it meant more pressure in the war against Japan-a war, which among other things, has cut Free China off from civilian supplies. and created black markets.
The Black Market
You have heard about the Black Markets in the States you run into them in China, plenty of them. And you have to be careful.
Some members of the American Forces have been foolish enough to sell some of their things on the Black Market. They have been court-martialed for there are strict Theater rules against selling anything in China, and the Army will crack down on any violaters. A good share of the stuff sold on the Black Market ends up in the hands of the Jap he is the Black Market's best customer.
That is one side of it. If you buy in the Black Market, it's a sure bet you are getting gypped. You will pay 5 to 10 times more than the article is worth. It may look like the real McCoy, but it's probably second or third hand. Black Market shysters are smart operators they play all the angles. No matter how you look at it, you can't win in the Black Market.
You will be playing fair with yourself and the Army when you follow Rule No. 13:
Stay Away From The Black Market- Don't Sell The Army Short
Your Money In China
You have heard about inflation-fortunately for you, you haven't had to experience much of it in the States. You have to contend with it in China, for China has been in the grips of inflation for quite a few years.
Inflation can be a pretty vicious business. Let's take a hypothetical case. Suppose you have been saving to buy a car, inflation comes along and you find that the $900 that would have bought a car five years ago will hardly buy you a decent meal now. That's what inflation does to the ordinary guy that's what it's doing to the average Chinese today.
Economists have many laws and rules to explain inflation-and even then they are not sure about it. Basically there are two causes.
One is that people lose faith in their currency. Secondly, during a war the emphasis of produc- tion is shifted from consumers' goods to war materials.
This means that more people are earning more money, but there are fewer things for them to buy with it. Consequently they are able and willing to offer more money for fewer goods and prices are forced up.
In China a combination of the two causes has brought about inflation. The influx of American personnel to China has not helped the situation either. We have bought up many things and that has sent prices up, too. For example, when Ame- ricans move into a region the local meat prices jump because Americans are heavy meat eaters. The supply of meat is scarce in normal times and when we move in, the average man doesn't have much of a chance. The same goes for the vege- tables, the sugar, the flour and all the other local foods that we need in such great quantities.
Comparatively you have a great deal of money when you are in China-much more in a month than the average Chinese has in a year. This gives you a great advantage in the markets. By buying articles that the Chinese needs you push the price up beyond his reach. If you throw your money around foolishly, you make it very difficult for him to purchase his every day needs. You are not the one who suffers from inflation in China.
Between April and June of 1945, the rate of ex- change increased from 600 to 1 to 1200 to 1. At this writing, $1.00 in United States currency is worth $1200.00 Chinese. What it will be worth when you read this booklet is anybody's guess.
But don't let this fool you, because as money gets cheaper during inflation, prices rise accordingly.
There is not much you will find to buy in China, and you won't need even your average amount of American money or Chinese either. Even a Chinese laborer might have a fistful of bills, so you don't gain "face" by throwing money around.
If you are going to buy something, use your head about it. There's no sense in sending home an article that the folks can buy in a gift shop in the States for half the price. Ask one of the Red Cross hostesses to advise you-she will be glad to help. Or better yet, have your Chinese friends to go with you when you shop. This will save you money and help you pick out something worth while.
The best advice of all is to save your money- there are plenty of things you will need cash for when you finally "get out".
The China Theater has about the highest savings rate in the Army. So put your money in War Bonds, wire it home, buy insurance, or place it in soldiers' deposits at 4% and remember Rule No. 12:
Don't throw your money around- Save it for home
Don't spend it all in one place, Bub. Those cigs probably cost $500 a pack - Chinese money.
You Never Know Who's Listening
The Chinese have an old saying that the walls have ears. In China you never knows who is listening. You cannot easily spot enemy an agent. Perhaps the waiter acts as if he doesn't speak or understand English. Yet he might be a Jap agent, who understands every word you say, and relays it to the enemy. More people than you think, understand English in China.
It is no secret that there are plenty of Jap agents in China. They gather little bits of information, send it back by devious ways to Jap Headquarters; then the pieces are put together and the Japs anticipate moves and act accordingly.
In no place in the world is it so important for you to keep Army business to yourself to follow the slogan on the posters; "Silence Means Security".
You are warned:
-Not to leave official papers in your room.
-Not to discuss confidential or secret business over the telephone-any telephone.
-Not to leave unburned papers, used carbons or cut stencils in your waste-basket at night.
-Not to discuss Army business in any letters you write home.
-Not, above all things, to discuss Army business at meals-in your billet, in a car with a driver, or at a dance.
-And before you leave the office lock your papers in the file, and then lock the office.
Security is strictly enforced in the China Theater. There are penalties for those who violate it. Rule No. 14 is:
Watch Security and keep Army Business to Yourself
The average Chinese is a good craftman. Everything he does is by hand. Every bit of Chinese farm equipment is usually made by the farmer himself. A Chinese will work for days perfecting a device which could be turned out in a minute through mass production facilities, which may come in the China of the future.
The Rumor Racket
As in every other part of the world, the China Theater has its share of rumors.
Some of the rumors have a thread-bare foundation in truth, but like most rumors become greatly exaggerated with repetition.
Others have absolutely no foundation in truth at all.
Both kinds are started and exaggerated by careless talk, or Japanese agents.
You aid the enemy and jeoparidze America's position in China if you repeat rumors.
Just to dispell a few of them right now?
"Most of the stuff which comes over the Stilwell Road is stolen and certain Chinese are buying arms and equipment to start a civil war when we go home."
We have lost material on the Stilwell Road, in fact even arrested a number of our own personnel for stealing it. The Chinese along the way have taken some too and those caught were shot by their own troops on orders of the Chinese Government(Republic of China). But losses in the China Theater are comparatively less than in other theaters of war.
In fact, part of your job here is to see that there are no losses at all; for carelessness on the part of our own personnel has been a main source of the trouble.
"The Chinese Army won't fight; they are just sitting around and letting us do it all."
The Chinese Army, when you take its past training and equipment into consideration, has done a miraculous job. Chinese troops have exhausted and tied down the enemy, despite the fact that they were low on guns and ammunition, and most of them didn't even have shoes.
They have lost millions of men and killed hundreds of thousands of Japs.
Behind-the-lines guerrillas have played hell with enemy supplies and worried the life out of the Jap.
Recently, a Chinese Army with Chinese and American air support, beat the Japs at Chichiang. They can and will do it again.
After all, if the millions of Chinese in the theater were as well trained as the American Army and had our equipment, we probably could all go home. They would have been able to drive the Japs back into the sea long ago.
This is a Chinese soldier. He can walk 25 to 30 miles a day with a full pack on his back. He lives on a little rice, usually walks in simple sandals. He is not afraid to die. Our job in China is to help supply him and train him in order to kill more Japs.
But that is why we are here, to help these Chinese Armies.
It is not violating security to say that when our training job is completed, you can look for aggres- sive action on the part of the Chinese. The Japs are looking for it, and expecting it, and they are going to get it.
If we can blend some of our methods with the natural courage and amazing stamina of the Chinese soldier and add to that more good American equipment, then take another look.
For a Chinese soldier tramps 25 miles or more day after day-up and down hill and mountain- with a full pack.
He toils up a grade all day long with a heavy gun strapped to his back.
He lives on a little rice.
He's not afraid to die; that has been proven thousands of times.
And they hate Japs, with a memory of lost loved ones, raped, burned and looted Chinese cities.
The bulk of the combat by American personnel in China is by the Air Force, and they have done a marvelous job. As for the Chinese Armies, helping them to be good fighters and aiding in supplying them is the American Army's mission in China. So keep your shirt on about the Chinese Army.
"The Japs could take Chungking or Kunming any time they want. They just haven't bothered."
The Japs have tried to keep coming a few times, but have been harried and held. They may try again. Naturally, the Japs would like to capture Chungking, the seat of the Chinese Government, if they could; in fact they tried time and again to bomb it out. But our Air Force drove them from the skies, and the Chinese caused them plenty of trouble on land.
"The Stilwell Road is a bust. Why we get many times more materials over the Hump."
Of course we get many times more material over the Hump than over the Stilwell Road. And we are trying to increase it. The Stilwell Road carries equipment of weight and size not always practical for air lift. It brings in jeeps, trucks and weapons carriers and other equipment not logical to transport by air. The Stilwell Road is not only a great engineering achievement, it is a vital supply line for the China Theater.
You may guard it or work on it or drive supplies over it. You must be alive every moment to the fact that getting these vehicles and supplies through is a Number One job of the American Army in China.
The Chinese are the most industrious people in the world. They carry unbelievable loads, which the average GI could hardly lift and they trudge them 25 miles a day or more for days on end. Be careful when trying to honk the Chinese laborer out of the way. He can't move very fast with loads like the one in the picture. And this is not an unusual picture. You'll see it repeated thousands of times in China.
"The Chinese won't work. They take it easy. They don't keep going."
The Chinese are probably the hardest working people in the world. Where else will you find men -and women, too-traversing the roads with unbelievably heavy loads on their backs? The Chinese played an essential part in building the Stilwell Road. They toiled for months on it and 10,000 of them died doing it. As many as eighty- thousand Chinese have built an airport and carried the dirt for it on their backs and the stones in their hands. Every piece of stone work you see in China is fashioned by hand.
Of course the Chinese do not work the same way as Americans. The Chinese are NOT Americans.
They live on a diet that would reduce you practically to starvation in a week.
So when you see Chinese working, and if you direct their work yourself, you must realize that their whole point of view, when it comes to “get it done" is different from ours, and has been for thousands of years.
You are not going to change it either, in a few months.
But if you do direct Chinese workmen, there are ways to get along. Don't treat them as inferiors. Remember, "Face". Blend your problems with their customs, and by working closely and sympathetically, you will get the job done. Not always as quickly as you want it, or just as you want it, and you may have to use a thousand men, where a hundred trained Americans would have sufficed.
Remember that many times the Chinese do things by their own methods without machinery that would baffle us. Col. Scott, for example, tells in his "God is My Co-Pilot" of a plane that fell into a river and was given up by the American salvage squad. Afterward the local people, using bamboo floats, brought it up without any trouble.
You will have to have patience. But you will find the Chinese willing and smiling and in most instances with amazing endurance, except those who drop by the way because of sickness and lack of food. You can expect a lot of both, but, if you know how to handle men, and make the best of all possible circumstances, you will get the job done and get along with the Chinese who work for you.
Chinese and U. S. troops work together in the job of beating the Japs. This photo shows a Chinese-American G I, training a Chinese in shop work.
"The Chinese are extremely cruel-they have no regard for human life."
The Chinese look at human values differently from the American. As someone once said: "There are so many people in China."
The fact is, the Chinese are a sentimental people. You can't look at the women fondly nursing their babies, and the innumerable men affectionately carrying their children and playing with them on the streets and along the roads, without knowing that the Chinese love children and go to what lengths they can to take good care of them.
What you might not observe, or be privileged to see, is Chinese family life, which would give you further insight into Chinese gentleness and character. The entire life of the individual revolves around the family. The father is the head of the household and he dictates to all. The married sons and unmarried daughters continue to live with their families. Large groups of relatives will be around, too, if the family can support them.
The Chinese family always takes care of its own. There is always a bowl of rice, somehow, for a relative.
On the other hand, if a Chinese is lying prone in the street, or is injured, a crowd might gather, but no one may touch him. This usually astonishes an American but according to an old Chinese custom which still holds with many, the person helping the injured one automatically assumes the responsibility of caring for him; perhaps for a long time. It may not be a perfect system, but you can't change customs overnight. You can see why a Chinese, having quite a struggle on his own, might not want to take on another long-time responsibility.
It is not unusual for the Chinese to whip and strain their hardy little horses. According to our standards, this isn't the way to handle animals. But human life itself is so cheap in China, that you can understand why the Chinese peasant might not value that of his horse more highly.
It is true that the Chinese have not the same regard for human life as the American, but in their own way they do a very creditable job of keeping alive and happy under circumstances that would prove difficult for anyone born and raised in the United States.
"Everybody in China could have enough to eat, if there were fewer profiteers."
There are, no doubt, profiteers in China, as in most other countries.
It is not a fact, however, that China's food situation is the result of profiteers.
When it comes to food, you have to understand the Chinese economy. China has about 450,000,000 people compared to 130,000,000 in the United States. Much of her land is either mountainous, or so dry it cannot support agriculture without artificial irrigation. As a result, most of China's people are crowded upon a comparatively small part of the land.
In America, an average farm family of five has around 160 acres of land. In China, there are only two and one-third tillable acres per farm family.
In other words, almost 70 Chinese farm families have to get a living from an area which supports one American farm family of the same size.
If you are from farming country, you know what that means. Particularly when you realize that more than 80% of China's population are farmers.
You can't help but admire the manner in which the Chinese make the most of every inch of avail- able soil, and the ingenious way in which they plant (by hand) their rice paddies and irrigate them.
This is a picture you'll find repeated thousands of times from the air, as you fly over China. The rice paddies and their unique irrigation system, are a tribute to Chinese patience, care and ingenuity. And every bit of these paddies is planted by hand.
This is a typical Chinese farmer. He and his family live on about two and one-third tillable acres, compared to an average of 160 acres for the average American farm family. Much of the land in China is so dry or mountainous that it cannot support agriculture. The Chinese farmer does wonders with his small plot of tillable land.
You have to remember, too, that even the " 70 farm family" figure is knocked into a cocked hat in Free China, where hundreds of thousands of refugees have swarmed into Chungking and Kunming and other areas, and further upset the economy.
Moreover, the Japs have taken some of the best food producing areas in China and in West China. There aren't enough railroads or roads to transport food to where it is needed.
The thing that is impressive is that most people seem to get enough to eat, and the kids usually look well-fed.
"Chinese profiteers make a fortune on our American messes. The army pays the Government in gold for its food."
The WASC hostels, in which a part of American personnel in the China Theater live and eat, are run under the auspices of the Chinese Government. By furnishing as much local food and available buildings as possible, Hump and Stilwell Road ton- nages are saved. Profiteers do NOT fatten on American WASC messes. The American Govern- ment has not paid one cent in cash for their operation. They are charged to reciprocal aid, just as the billeting of our troops in England is charged to reciprocal aid.
In some Army messes, food is purchased on the open market by the mess officer, the billet itself furnished by the Chinese Government, and where charges are concerned, no rents are paid to individuals in cash, or the Government for that matter. This too, is charged against reciprocal aid.
"The Chinese charge the American Army $5.00 gold for every brick they put into a building for us. Rich Chinese are building these army struc- tures for us at a tremendous profit."
This is, of course, ridiculous. Many establish- ments are furnished the Army and other U.S. agencies by the Chinese Government without any cost; other rents or construction may be charged against reciprocal aid. Whatever the building costs might be on the account, they are at the same rate that exists for other structures in China, frequently less. The Army seldom buys or leases buildings from individuals. The Army has never failed to receive from its ally, the Chinese Govern- ment, full cooperation in resisting unfair profits.
America does not and will not pay one cent on reciprocal aid. The many millions of dollars worth of goods and services we are now receiving from China are simply being recorded in the books as an offsetting credit to China which will be considered when the Lend-Lease settlements are made.
It should be understood that the tremendous importance of Lend-Lease in the war against Japan has made it a constant target for enemy propaganda. Don't fall for it! When you spread Lend-Lease or other rumors you aid the Jap, but not if you follow Rule No. 15:
"Don't Start or Spread Rumors' "
China(Republic of China) looks ahead-ahead to Victory over the Japanese, and establishment of the democratic government which the war interrupted. China's millions are fighting to eradicate the Jap menace forevermore, and to build a China in which they can live and work unmolested.
After reading all of the do's and don'ts, you may have your eyebrows raised about China before you ever see it. You may be wondering what kind of life you will lead in this country, if it is still strange to you.
The fact is, these do's and don'ts, the fifteen rules in this little booklet, can be of tremendous help to you in enjoying China and getting along there.
Yes, there are some that don't get along anywhere and won't ever like any place but home; they don't like strangers and believe that anyone who doesn't act like an American or think along the lines of the home town folks are completely off-base.
On the other hand, there are those who always make the best of a strange environment, approach it with an open mind, a friendly spirit-and they get the most out of it.
You can get much out of your stay in China. You can enjoy yourself and see many new and amazing things. You have the privilege of living in a civiliza- tion with traditions forty centuries old, and seeing it emerge from the past as it struggles for its very life in the present.
As a member of the American Army, you are a symbol of America to the Chinese. You can, if you take the trouble and follow the rules, get to know and understand one of the great peoples of the world-one of America's great friends. You can play a part in making that friendship a lasting one.
The Chinese have an old saying "the walls have ears." Silence means security, and in no place in the world is it more important to follow this rule than in China. The photo, taken outside the U. S. Headquarters War room, also illustrates something else: Note the Chinese and American officers' caps. You get the idea.
"Emily Post In China"
A Few Notes on Etiquette
On Meeting a lady: Home town tactics are "out". You are not gallant when you offer a girl your arm as you cross the street. Likewise, if you are over-attentive. Be polite, dignified and casual. A display of public gallantry will only embarrass a Chinese Lady. Don't give them "the eye". And they are not used to being kidded--or whistled at !
Keep away from street brawls: The Chinese have their own technique. They accuse and counter-accuse, and voices might become shrill and loud. A crowd will probably gather. But neither of those "fighting will usually hit each other. A policeman will probably come and "break it up". Don't you try it.
The Word is Chinese" Never say "Chinaman ". The proper word is "Chinese ". It is just as bad to call a Chinese a native". Somehow both words have come to have a derogatory meaning.
"Squeeze "is Okay: If you find that your servant is taking 10 to 20% "squeeze" on a purchase, don't get sore. It is an established custom. In the States we have the "middleman ".
He takes an in-between profit. In China the middle-man is often your servant. He takes his in-between profit in "squeeze". That's the system. You may not like it but you won't want to argue about it. Try to know your values so that the "squeeze" is kept in moderation.
A word on drinking: The Chinese don't drink as we do. They usually confine it to parties and banquets. You never see a drunken Chinese on the street. You will never want to be seen, either, half-seas-over. You-and all Americans-lose "face" by it.
Driving in China: Traffic keeps to the left as in England, opposite to the Traffic flow in the States. Chinese frequently get in front of your vehicle and walk in the street. They have a right to-it is their street. The streets are not reserved exclusively for autos or trucks. The Chinese don't react as quickly as an American to a horn, and a laborer pushing a heavy load just can't move aside quickly. Be considerate of traffic; use your horn frequently and don't go driving pell-mell down the streets. Remember you don't own the roads in China. On narrow paths give way to a Chinese carrying a load-don't force him off.
Politics aren't polite: You don't discuss them, if you meet a Chinese, or are fortunate enough to be invited to a Chinese home. In fact, you must follow Rule No. 8-Politics aren't to be discussed with anyone, anywhere.
Handle your servants as humans: Say "please" and "thank you" to your servants, as you would at home. If they don't understand English, they get the idea. Don't assume that you are a member of a master race, and that the Chinese are just here to work for you. This is their country, they are happy of the opportunity to be of service to you, but treat them politely and reasonably. You will get more out of them that way and they will get a good impression of you. Don't ask the impossible, and you can't get mad if they don't understand you or your brand of Chinese. This is China and, by and large, the ordinary people speak only Chinese.
Don't strike a Chinese: Striking or pushing a person is intensely resented by the Chinese. You not only anger them, but you lose "face" yourself if you use violence.
Chinese Officers: They are to be treated with the same respect as American officers; if you recognize their insignia, salute them. When a Chinese salutes you, give him a smart salute back.
If you visit a Chinese home: Drink tea as offered, but go sparingly on the sweetmeats, and always have a little left. Then follow your host during the meal. If you are introduced to the ladies, be very formal. Don't admire any article in the room. According to Chinese custom, the host then insists that you take it as your own.
You'll find the Chinese the friendliest people in the world. When they smile and raise their thumb and yell "Ding Hao," they mean "very good," and that applies to you.
As for the Chinese language: It is polite to know a few words of it. It is a great advantage to be able to speak it. Your Information-Education officer will form a language class if desired, or help you get one of the Chinese phrase books and perhaps some Chinese language records.
Here are a few phrases that will help you:
Hsieh hsieh (sh-yen sh-ych | 謝謝) Thank you.
Ching (Ching|請) Please.
Ni hao ma (nee how ma|你好嗎) How are You? Good day.
Tsai chien (sigh gen|再見) Goodbye.
You will find things much more interesting if you can speak a little Chinese. The Chinese will find you more interesting too.
Here Are Those 15 Rules - Read Them Again
1. Act like a guest in China.
2. America is judged by you - Be a Good Ambassador.
3. Get along with the Chinese - to Hell with what the Japs want.
4. Don't be critical, Foreigner.
5. Be a GENTLEMAN - First, Last, and Always.
6. Don't lose "face" and help the Chinese to keep "face".
7. Don't tempt Keep your Stuff Locked Up.
8. Don't talk Chinese Politics.
9. If you can make her, its 1000 to 1 she has VD.
10. Eat only hot food - Drink only boiled water -And stick to the Army mess.
11. Watch your Malaria precautions.
12. Don't throw your money around- save it for home.
13. Stay away from the Black Market - Don't sell the Army short.
14. Watch security and keep Army business to yourself.
15. Don't start or spread rumors.