The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
我花了四十多年的時間找到了我先生羅伊爾-瑪爾斯（Loyal S. Marrs Jr.）中尉失事的真相，他在他第56趟往返駝峰的飛行中陣亡，那是民國34年（1945）2月27日，當時他所駕駛的是C-109燃油專用運輸機（改裝自B-24轟炸機），載運了3,875加侖的汽油。
在關鍵的那一天，第一組飛送任務的是由飛行員理查-柯森伯格（Richard H. Kurzenberger）中尉率領的機組人員所執行，下面是他所敘述的：
我和機組人員是倒數第二個飛行編號2000的C-109運油機，預計行程是從印度喬爾哈特到中國成都，天氣沒有太大問題，而且我們獲得北線A的飛行許可，大約在傍晚時起飛，朝著到指定的高度爬升，在赫茲堡（Fort Hertz）上方的高度差不多是一萬九千英呎時，我的無線電操作員韋恩-阿姆斯壯（Wayne Armstrong）走到前面來，要我跟他回到位子去，他指給我看機翼後緣不斷噴灑而出的汽油；我馬上做了一個一百八十度的迴轉，然後減速以便為這趟失望的回航降落做準備。在當時，我們折返喬爾哈特的航行是不受歡迎的，那就類似開小差的意思。調度官上了飛機，檢查了引擎後說一切正常，要我們的組員翌日早晨向指揮官報告。他要人把油箱加滿，同時叫了另一組人馬，繼續這趟飛送任務，他們差不多在晚上11點出發。隔天早上發現編號2000的C-109在航行中失蹤。我們認為我們做了正確的選擇，不僅救了飛機也救了我們的組員。我記不得那架飛機上失蹤的機組人員有誰，只記得我的組員跟我望著編號2000起飛的時候，我們都靜靜地站在那裡！心裡都明白我們再也見不到那架飛機或她的組員了。（理查-柯森伯格的）敘述到此。
(本書作者Chick Marrs Quinn.丈夫)
民國31年（1942）3月，第1飛送大隊第3飛送中隊正式成立，以從麻塞諸塞州威斯特歐佛空軍基地（Westover Field）第11運輸中隊招募而來的九十名官兵為核心，由同樣來自威斯特歐佛的理查-貝爾登（Richard E. Beldon）少尉擔任指揮官，第3飛送中隊迅速茁壯，此一核心部隊設置於北卡羅萊納州布拉格堡（Fort Bragg）的波普機場（Pope Field）。
第3飛送中隊立即迎來了新血的加入，3月8日上午，這個核心部隊歡迎31名應徵者的到來；包含廚師、轟炸瞄準系統維修技師、動力砲塔人員及飛機武器專家，他們是從科羅拉多州的羅瑞機場（Lowry Field）來的。當天稍後，來自科羅拉多州羅根堡（Fort Logan）陸軍文書學校的30名職員抵達。幾乎每天都有成群結隊的應徵者前來，例如來自伊利諾州查努特機場（Chanute Field）的65名應徵者，以及來自密蘇里州傑佛森營區非常稱職的廚師們；伊利諾州史考特空軍基地（Scott S. Field）來了無線電操作員及維修技師，來自密西西比州基斯勒機場（Keesler Field）的汽車技師與專家則是讓飛送中隊的陣容更加壯大。維吉尼亞州蘭利機場（Langley Field）與麻塞諸塞州威斯特歐佛空軍基地也提供了無線電操作員及氣象專家。3月12日，第一批軍官抵達，包含新任的中隊指揮官唐納德-麥克盧爾（Donald A. McClure）上尉，他是來自步兵的現役資深軍官；也在同一天，空中梯隊啟程前往位在佛羅里達州西棕櫚灘的摩里森機場。
Early in 1942 it was clear that the Japanese were going to be successful in their drive into Burma. China would be throughly blockaded. The Burma Road that afforded a route over which a tric- kle of supplies could be delivered to China would be eliminated. A NEW ROUTE HAD TO BE FOUND!. The only solution was by air trans- port, over the Himalayan Mountains from bases in India to China.
On March 1942, the Third Ferrying Squadron, First Ferrying Group came into being. Founded upon a nucleus of ninety enlisted men from the 11th Transport Squadron, Westover Field, Massachusetts, and commanded by 2nd Lt. Richard E. Beldon, also from Westover Field, the third Ferrying Squadron grew rapidly. The cadres were set up at Pope Field, Fort Bragg, North Carolina.
New blood flowed into the squadron immediately. On the morn- ing of March 8th, the cadre welcomed 31 enlisted men; cooks, bomb- sight maintenance men, power gun turret men, and aircraft arm- ament experts from Lowry Field, Colorado. Later during the day, thirty clerks arrived from the Army Clerical School at Fort Logan, Colorado. Enlisted personnel continued to arrive in groups almost daily. Sixty-five men arrived from Chanute Field, Illinois. Jeff- erson Barracks, Missouri, sent the cooks required; from Scott S Field, Illinois, came radio operators and mechanics; from Keesler Field, Mississippi, came auto mechanics and specialists to swell the ranks, Langley Field, Virginia, and Westover Field in Mass- achusetts, contributed more radio operators and some weather experts. On March the 12th the first officers arrived and a new Squadron Commander; Capt. Donald A. McClure, a veteran of active duty in the Infantry, took command. Also on that day the Air Echelon departed for Morrison Field, West Palm Beach, Florida
On March 17th orders were received to move the two outfits to Charleston, S.C. Arriving at the Charleston Harbor, the troops found the Moore-McCormack Liner, BRAZIL, transformed into a troop ship and ready to transport them to their destination. Marching directly from the train onto the Brazil. Shortly before dawn on the 19th of March the U.S.A.T. Brazil weighed anchor and glided out of the Charleston Harbor--destination--unknown to most of the men.
不誇張的說法是，這艘船有些擁擠；床舖略嫌窄小，同時通風不良。這些不利的條件加添船客們的不適，許多從未見過海的人更是處境悲慘。4月3日，巴西號駛入法屬西非位在弗利敦灣（Bay of Freetown）的港口，經過三天的停留之後，再度啟航，於航行十天後抵達了英屬南非聯邦的開普敦（Capetown），在這裡，船上的人第一次踏上了海灘。
空軍資深軍官克萊門特-米契爾（Clement C. Mitchell, Jr. ）上尉成為新的指揮官，8月1日，第3飛送中隊正式被運送至印度上阿薩姆邦（Upper Assam）的察布瓦（Chabua），那天是標誌著指揮官、行政人員及眾多軍官們搭機前往察布瓦的日子。
Conservatively speaking, the ship was somewhat crowded; bunks were small, and ventilation poor. These poor conditions added to the discomfort of the men, many were miserable never having been to sea before. On April 3rd the ship sailed into a harbor in the Bay of Freetown, French West Africa, where it remained for three days. Sailing out again, ten more days were spent at sea before reaching Capetown, Union of British South Africa. Here the men had their first shore privileges.
Only one day was spent at sea before docking at Port Elizabeth, also in South Africa, After six days in the harbor the Brazil said farewell to a port of call.
Finally on May 15th at 3:00 P.M. the Brazil dropped anchor in the harbor of Karachi, India. Fifty-eight days had been consumed during the overwater trip.
A Captain Clement C. Mitchell, Jr. became the new C.0., a vet- eran of the air. On the first day of August the 3rd Sq. was offic- ially transferred to Chabua, Upper Assam, India. That day marked the departure of the Commanding Officer, office personnel and many officers by plane to Chabua.
The remaining members of the squadron, after two days of con- stant anticipation, boarded a train to join the organization at Chabua Field. India's trains were quite like our comic strip "Toonerville Trolley". The men were given an apportunity to view India that way, as yet, a land of charm and mystery to them. Mile after mile of flat desert-like plain, the surface, one of magnif- icent failure, was viewed.
Areas flooded by recent rains, rice paddies, water buffalo mingling with the rough-coated half-starved cows, mangy, long eared camels and wide eyed natives all passed in review like characters in a Disney Technicolor Production. The troops, despite discomfort of the crowded train, numerous flies and mesquitoes, were seeing India a land of varied scenery and lavish color, a land of extreme riches and poverty; a land of heat and cold, of disease and dirt; a fascinating land of beauty and misery; of slavery and freedom dimly sensed, but out of reach.
On the morning of August 11th, the weary troops arrived at Allahabad where they remained until 19 August, when they were load- ed on planes. Five and a half hours later, they arrived at Chabua.
民國31年（1942）9月13日，羅伯特-賽克斯登（Robert C. Sexton）少校接替克萊門特-米契爾上尉成為第3飛送中隊的指揮官。
飛行時間僅限白天的作法一直維持到民國31年（1942）9月中旬，約翰-佩恩（John D. Payne）上尉自願在夜間跨越「巨石堆」（Rockpile，譯註：飛行員對駝峰障礙的另一暱稱）。博德尼少校（Major Bordene）擔任導航員，使用法軍的地圖，從察布瓦出發，前往中國昆明。在從未停歇的亂流進擊及烏雲阻攔夾擊下，佩恩上尉完美地操控飛機並平安地降落在昆明，首趟夜間飛往中國的行動順利完成。
Chabua Field, Assam's second airfield (Dinjan being the first), had been built in the most primitive manner--by manpower without enginnering equipment. Work started in early February 1942. Some 2600 native women were engaged in breaking stone brought to Chabua by rail and Brahmaputra River barge. Squatting on their haunches, shaded by bamboo sheds, these women broke approximately 11,000.000 cubic feet of stone during the construction. In April, a stone crusher was received, but broke down immediately. All efforts to procure parts proved futile and the crusher proved to be of little or no use.
The runway was tarred by hand using coolies. Finally an American truck (tar sprayer) was received and work was hastened. On July 26th 1942 the first C-47 landed on the base where it remained for a few hours before departing.
The primary mission of this base was to be the flying of Mili-d tary supplies and personnel to China. The flight from Assam to China would have to be accomplished without the aid of navigational devices, in full view of the enemy when weather permitted, against unseen adversaries; over hazardous mountains and steaming jungle when on instruments.
On September 13th 1942 Major Robert C. Sexton relieved Capt. Mitchell as C.O. of the 3rd Ferrying Squadron.
All the C-47's in operating condition would take off just be- fore dawn for their China destination. An absolute minimum were kept on the ground because of fear of air attacks. Chabua was only a half hour flight from the advanced bases of the Japanese.
In September American-Anti-Aircraft arrived on the field and immediately set up positions in stategic sites. Frequent practice firing was held, and on many occasions, especially after the first Jap attack, the natives upon hearing the firing, would panic.
Flying was limited to the daylight hours until the middle of September 1942, when Captain John D. Payne volunteered to span the "Rockpile" at night. With Major Bordene as a navigator, and using French maps they departed Chabua enroute to Kunming, China. With the ever present turbulence and overcast as foes, Capt. Payne ex- pertly handled the plane and landed safely in China. The first night flight to China had been made.
During September 1942 Chabua's planes played their part in the transporting of 441.7 tons from Assam area over the Hump. Chabua's exact contribution is not known, as records are lacking. Operations moved along at a slow pace while the men worked long hours to over- come the shortage of personnel. Lack of records prohibits the giv- ing of the number of aircraft available during 1942. However, men that arrived later, place the figure at thirty planes, with a total of forty-five in early December.
At 1400 hours on October 1942 approximately 27 Jap bombers, ac- companied by several fighters, bombed and strafed the field. In ad- dition to seven planes being hit, a railway gas dump was set on fire; craters were left in the runway and a few coolies from Sylhet, were killed. The craters were filled in immediately by local native la- borers. Almost the entire group of coolies from Sylhet burned their bashas and left after the raid.
Then on October 27th 1942 at 1300 hours, the Japs paid their sec- ond visit to the field; at the time of the raid a reduced force of 800 men and 500 women coolie laborers were at work. The enemy air- craft had achieved the element of surprise, and little was had for the securing of shelter. Material damage was slight, but many of the coolies were killed and wounded.
Chabua's first control tower was installed during October, perched up in a tree at the southeast end of the runway, it was operated by both the ATC and the RAF personnel.
On December 1st 1942 the India China Air Transport Command came into being with Chabua as leadquarters.
On Christmas day of 1942 the first fifteen C-87's arrived at Chabua. By this time other airfields were opening up, there was Mohanbari, Sookerating. In 1943 when Jorhat and Tezpur went into operation Chabua once again had to bear the brunt for supplying much of the equipment. In all cases the equipment was later re- turned, but was almost worn beyond use.
All during 1943 our crews flew the "Hump" with very little flying crew equipment. The proper clothing dribbled in and usually the clothing necessary was non-existent. Many crews spanned
民國32年（1943）9月下旬，哈利-任蕭（Harry N. Renshaw）上校繼任指揮官，許多故事都流傳著他對官兵們的體貼關心，特別是對那些招募來的人。他真的是被他下面的人所愛戴。12月19日，從德里（Delhi）返回的任蕭上校於飛機失事中喪生。無線電操作員們揭露上校當時正在進行其它的飛行檢定。所以說民國31年及32年的整個行動曲線圖顯示的是穩定上升的趨勢，日軍在民國32年（1943）僅實行過一次空襲，那是二月的事；飛機有所損失，但整體而言破壞不算太嚴重。經過駝峰所運輸的補給共一萬兩千噸，超過了第十四航空隊司令官陳納德准將所設一萬噸的目標，而且大部份是在補給、物資及人力都十分短缺的那一年所完成的。雖然裝備有限，但所有人都長時間地賣力工作—地勤人員必須隨時待命等候一架飛機的維修作業完成，這樣為數不多的工具才能被其它飛機使用。飛送隊的職員必須利用排版或剪貼方式印製文件因為打字機極度缺乏。環伺隊員們的是增援部隊的缺乏、瘧疾和極高的濕氣，同時依然得在阿薩姆炙熱的陽光下或是滂沱大雨中，賣力勞動而沒有遮蔽。 除了悲慘的條件外，所有其它的一切都補給短缺，燈泡時不時會熄滅，有時會缺水而無法洗澡；不過戰事還在進行中，我們依然想盡辦法向成功邁出第一步，以艱辛的方式。
the routes without oxygen. Oxygen masks were difficult to obtain, and oxygen had to be flown in from the Calcutta area. Later an oxygen plant was set up in Assam but it blew up on more than one occasion resulting in our planes being grounded or necessitating flying without oxygen.
May 1943 saw the arrival of the first C-46's, spare parts im- mediately became a problem. In the middle of 1943, the parts short- age was so acute, that it almost became necessary to ground 50% of our aircraft.
With supply as the main obstacle to overcome, the weather en- countered over the Hump presented many problems. Planes disappeared; lives were lost, but some crews were fortunate enough to bail out to safety. Crews returning from flights told of the severe icing con- ditions causing engines to cut out, because of the fury of the tur- bulence which tossed the planes about like a feather; due to the fast changing high velocity winds, heavy snowfall, and slush, also terrific buildups, etc.
Late in September 1943 Col. Harry N. Renshaw became commanding Officer. Many stories were told of his thoughtfulness toward his men particularly the enlisted men. He was truly loved by every man under him. On December 19th Col. Renshaw was killed in a plane crash while returning from Delhi. The radio operators tell the story that he was in quest of additional ratings for them. So the years 1942 and 1943 ended with the operational graphs showing a steady trend upwards. There was only one raid carried out by the Japanese in 1943, it was in February. Aircraft were lost, but damage on an overall basis was not too serious. Twelve Thousand tons of supplies went over the Hump surpassing the goal of 10,000 tons as set by Brig. General Chennault, Commanding General of the 14th Air Force. Much was accomplished during the year despite shortages of supply, ma- terials and manpower. All personnel worked hard and long hours with limited equipment -- ground crews had to stand by to wait for maintenance for one plane to be completed so that the few tools could be used on their planes. Clerks had to PRINT letters because of the dire need of typewriters. The men were beleaguered by lack of re- inforcements, malaria, high humidity, and had to toil in the scorching Assam sun or the torrential rains without cover. Everything was in short supply, except miserable conditions, lights would go out; at times there was not enough water for bathing. But there was a war going on and we were still trying to get to first base, the hard way..
Oficial USA. A. F. photo
A road lost and won. Detail of a section of the Burma Road just east of Yunnanyi from altitude
of 13,000 feet. The wings of air transportation over the famous "Hump" route came to supply
more material of war than ever traversed this devious mountain highway.
*中緬印戰區飛行員暨作家亞瑟-蘇頓（Arthur W. Sutton）、中緬印戰區飛行員暨作家威廉-史密斯（William E. Smith）
*《中緬印戰區簡報|CBI Roundup》前老闆暨編輯狄威特-金恩（Dwight O. King）
*阿拉巴馬州麥斯威爾空軍基地、歷史中心（Historical Center）麥克-莫斯高（Michael G. Moskow），關於中緬印戰區研究
*理查-柯森伯格（Richard H. Kurzenberger），飛行員，印度喬爾哈特
*法蘭克-賴彼特（Frank K. Rabbitt），分享資訊與照片，非常特別的一個人
This book has had many contributors for whose help I would like to express my thanks.
* Hump Pilots Association, Inc.
* H.P.A." China Airlift" Books I and II.
* Jan Thies, Executive Secretary, H.P.A.
* Frank Roth, CBI Pilot and Author
* Arthur W. Sutton, Jr. CBI Pilot and Author William E. Smith, CBI Pilot and Author
* Dwight O. King, Owner & Editor, Ex-CBI Roundup
* The National Archives, Washington, D.C. Norton Air Force Base, CA
* Time-Life Magazine, 1944 picture of plane crash.
* To all that answered my letters, phone calls of inquiry, and especially, the ones who came to see me, bringing with them not only their wonderful memories to share, but they also brought their log books and pictures.
* Cartoon plane drawings, from Aircraft Year Book 1943, also Grumman, Douglas, Republic, Lockheed,Curtiss, Vultee, Boeing, Consolated.
* Maxwell AFB, AL. Historical Center Michael G. Moskow, for CBI Research
* Richard H. Kurzenberger, Pilot, Jorhat India
* Frank K. Rabbitt, For sharing information, and pictures. A very special person.
左側為約翰-昆茲（John F. Kuntz）中士，兵籍號碼 12039907
右側為雷蒙-米爾斯（Raymond A. Mills）上士，兵籍號碼 12040009
On the Left S/S John F. Kuntz, 12039907
On the Right T/Sgt. Raymond A. Mills, 12040009
S/Sgt. Kuntz, was killed 25 May, 1944 Page 146.
Picture taken early 1944 at Dinjan, India in front of their Basha. Sgt. Mills Survived.
Wednesday July 22, 1988
"Just A few lines to SAY "THANK YOU" for All the information on my friend of "Long Age"– DAVE Hutchinson. I still can't believe, that After 44 years I finally FOUND out about my Friends, JoHu KUNTY AND DAVE. THIS HAs been on my mind FOR All THESE years AND THANKS to you I AM SOME What Relieved to KNOW THAT THE FACT, WERE Discovered AND THAT They WERE NOT Just A M.I.A "
Again, THANK you, I will Always Remember you AND IF I EVEN CAN be & Help to You in Any Way - Please ASK ME!!!
About This Book
I have asked myself many times, why did you spend 9½ years, searching through over 60,000 pages of Government documents, trying to piece together the facts surrounding the aircraft crashes in the China-Burma-India theatre in World War II ?. The only answer is, I HAD TO DO IT.
It took me over forty years to get the facts about my husband's crash, 1st Lt. Loyal S. Marrs Jr. He was killed on his 56th round trip over the "Hump", on February 27th 1945. He was fly- ing a C-109, ( a modified B-24 ), that was carrying 3875 gallons of gasoline.
The first crew to take this plane out on that fateful day, was piloted by Lt. Richard H. Kurzenberger, the following is his statement.
I and my crew were next to the last to fly number 2000. We had a trip to Chengtu, China, from Jorhat, India. Weather was no pro- blem and we had a clearance for the north route "A", our depart- ure was about dusk, and climbing out to our assigned altitude upon reaching about 19,000 feet over approximately Fort Hertz, my radio operator Wayne Armstrong, came up front and asked that I come back to his station right away. He pointed out gasoline spraying out of the trailing edge of the wing. I immediately did a 180 and reduced the power for a let down back to our field. Our arrival back at Jorhat was not a welcome one, in that in those days, if you turned back, it was like desertion. The expediting officer got into the aircraft, ran up the engines and said that everything was OK, and for our crew to report to the Commanding Officer in the morning. He had the tanks topped off and called out another crew, to take this flight, they got off around 11 P.M. The following morning Number 2000 was missing in flight. We thought we had done the right thing to save an aircraft as well as a crew. I don't remember the crew that disappeared on that flight, my crew and I watched the plane number 2000 as it took off, we just stood there in silence, knowing that we wouldn't see it or the crew again. End of statement.
The crew that was called out was my husband's, this was to be his last flight. It wasn't until 1986, that Lt. Kurzenberger and I contacted each other, and we met this past summer (1989) when he and his lovely wife Edna, came by to see us, from their home in Horseheads, N. Y. During the years of research, I was contacted by many people, who lost a loved one in the C.B. I. and I was privileged to have the opportunity to share with them, information I had acquired through the years, Facts about their loved ones plane crashes and deaths. When I would receive a letter of thank you from a brother, father, sister or child, telling me how much it meant to them to know the truth, as many put it" What really Happened" to their Sons, Brothers and etc, It was then that I really knew, I had cast my bread upon the waters and it had come back to me, with Butter and Jam on it.
I owe so much to so many that have shared information with me, about their loved ones that is included in this book, There are too many to list but they already know how much I appreciate what they did.
One thing the reader must understand, there were very few reports filed for aircraft lost before June of 1943 and the reports were not filed for All, aircraft lost. There can never be a complete book of all aircraft and all crews lost in the C.B.I. This information does not exist. The hardest part was trying to get the names spelled correctly. In so many cases they were spe- lled, sometimes three different ways. So there will be some names that are not correct. In almost all cases the Army Serial Numbers will be correct. The quality of the Micro-Film and the Micro-Fiche was at times very difficult to read. But from the beginning I knew this would not be easy.
So I will leave you with something my Mother told me. "If you always do your very best, you will owe no one an apology."
President Truman gave the order to drop the "Atomic Bomb" called "Little Boy" the word came that it could be dropped after August 3rd 1945. The city of Hiroshima, was selected as the primary target. Other cities mentioned in the orders were Kokura, Niigata and Nagasaki. The people of Japan had grown accustomed to seeing small formations of B-29's passing over harmlessly on reconnais- sance flights. But today was a very special day. This was to be a day of retaliation for every young man who had died in this war from Pearl Harbor to the fetid jungle of Burma, this beautiful B-29 the "Enola Gay" was carrying "Little Boy" the answer to many an American prayer. On August 6th at 8:15 A.M. (Hiroshima Time) from an altitude of 31,600 feet, the "Enola Gay" birthed her BABY BOY in downtown Hiroshima. For generations yet unborn the day of his coming would be told and retold. He would not be soon forgotten. Three days after the destruction of Hiroshima, "FAT MAN" was put into the bomb bay of a B-29 named Bock's Car, at 10:58 A.M. (Nagasaki Time) "FAT MAN" made his debut. He was said to have been brighter than a thousand suns, and in a flash, thirty to forty thousand Japs gave their all for their Emperor. The war was fin- ally over, the men would be coming home at long last, families would be reunited. Others would arrive in caskets, to be buried long before their time. Their young widows, and family members would stand with broken hearts while the caskets were lowered to their final resting place. The average age of these young men would be 24 years, and every heart screamed silently, "MY GOD! THE PRICE WAS TO HIGH".