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《鋁道》中美盟軍駝峰航線陣亡紀錄,民國31-34年二次世界大戰中緬印戰區天空裡的—他們如何及在何處犧牲的(民國78年出版)

已更新:1月18日

The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

《鋁道》中美盟軍駝峰航線陣亡紀錄,民國31-34年二次世界大戰中緬印戰區天空裡的—他們如何及在何處犧牲的(民國78年出版)


The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》


關於本書


我問過自己許多次,你幹嘛要花九年半的時間,查閱超過六萬頁的政府文件,想要把圍繞著第二次世界大戰中緬印戰區那些失事飛機周邊的故事真相給拼湊出來?唯一的答案是,我必須這麼做/我別無選擇。


我花了四十多年的時間找到了我先生羅伊爾-瑪爾斯(Loyal S. Marrs Jr.)中尉失事的真相,他在他第56趟往返駝峰的飛行中陣亡,那是民國34年(1945)2月27日,當時他所駕駛的是C-109燃油專用運輸機(改裝自B-24轟炸機),載運了3,875加侖的汽油。


在關鍵的那一天,第一組飛送任務的是由飛行員理查-柯森伯格(Richard H. Kurzenberger)中尉率領的機組人員所執行,下面是他所敘述的:


我和機組人員是倒數第二個飛行編號2000的C-109運油機,預計行程是從印度喬爾哈特到中國成都,天氣沒有太大問題,而且我們獲得北線A的飛行許可,大約在傍晚時起飛,朝著到指定的高度爬升,在赫茲堡(Fort Hertz)上方的高度差不多是一萬九千英呎時,我的無線電操作員韋恩-阿姆斯壯(Wayne Armstrong)走到前面來,要我跟他回到位子去,他指給我看機翼後緣不斷噴灑而出的汽油;我馬上做了一個一百八十度的迴轉,然後減速以便為這趟失望的回航降落做準備。在當時,我們折返喬爾哈特的航行是不受歡迎的,那就類似開小差的意思。調度官上了飛機,檢查了引擎後說一切正常,要我們的組員翌日早晨向指揮官報告。他要人把油箱加滿,同時叫了另一組人馬,繼續這趟飛送任務,他們差不多在晚上11點出發。隔天早上發現編號2000的C-109在航行中失蹤。我們認為我們做了正確的選擇,不僅救了飛機也救了我們的組員。我記不得那架飛機上失蹤的機組人員有誰,只記得我的組員跟我望著編號2000起飛的時候,我們都靜靜地站在那裡!心裡都明白我們再也見不到那架飛機或她的組員了。(理查-柯森伯格的)敘述到此。


被召集的正是我先生的機組人員,這將是他最後的一趟飛行。直到民國75年(1986),我才跟柯森伯格中尉連絡上,我們在去年夏天碰了面(民國78年|1989),他跟他可愛的老婆艾德納從紐約州何斯黑茲(Horseheads)的家來探望我。在這些年來的調查研究中,許多在中緬印戰區失去心中所愛的人會連絡我,我何其有幸能夠與他們分享交流,不論是這些年我得到的資訊還是有關於他們親友愛人的飛機失事喪亡的真相。當我收到來自當事人的兄弟、父親、姊妹或小孩的感謝函,告訴我知道事實的真相對他們多麼意義重大時,就像許多人說的他們的孩子、兄弟等「到底發生了什麼事」,直到那時我才真的理解,我好像默默行善不求回報的人,卻得到了無法想像的滿滿回報。


對那些與我分享訊息的人我深感愧歉,因為此書將他們心愛的人列入其中。有太多的人要感謝,但他們已經知道我是多麼感激他們所作的一切。


有一件事讀者必須明白,在民國32年(1943)6月之前所提交的飛機折損報告非常少,而且這些報告並不完整,不是所有折損的飛機資料。不可能會有一本關於中緬印戰區飛機與機組人員陣亡的完整報告,這樣的資料不存在。最困難的部份是要把姓名給拼對;在很多的例子裡發現,他們的名字時常被三種拼法呈現。因此,有些名字並不正確,不過絕大多數的兵籍號碼是沒問題的。微縮膠卷和微縮膠片的品質有時糟到無法辨識,還好打從一開始我就知道這不會是件容易的事。


所以,我把我媽媽說過的一句話送給你們,「如果你盡了每一分的氣力,那麼你就對得起所有人了。」


民國34年|1945


杜魯門總統下令投擲名為「小男孩」的原子彈,消息指出可能在民國34年(1945)8月3日之後,名為廣島的城市被選定為主要目標,名單上提到的城市還包括北九州、新潟及長崎。日本民眾對於頭頂上小型編隊飛行、進行無害的偵查任務的B-29轟炸機已經習以為常,但那天是特別的日子,對於在這場從珍珠港到充滿腐臭味的緬甸叢林裡喪命的每一個年輕人來說,這一天是反擊報復的日子。這架美麗的B-29轟炸機「伊諾拉-蓋」號載著「小男孩」準備回應眾多美國民眾的祈禱。(廣島當地時間)8月6日上午8點15分,「伊諾拉-蓋」於三萬一千六百英呎高空產下了她的男嬰,降落在廣島市中心。對於尚未出生的世世代代,他的到來將被一再傳述,人民不會很快忘記他的事蹟。廣島被摧毀的三天之後,「胖子」被送進名為「博克的車」(Bock's Car)的B-29轟炸機的炸彈艙裡。(長崎當地時間)上午10點58分,「胖子」完成首次的演出,據說他的亮光勝過千顆太陽,而在電光石火的剎那間,三十到四十萬名的日本百姓為他們的天皇獻出了生命。這場戰爭終於結束了,人民終於可以回家了,家人也得以團聚。無法團圓的人則會裝在棺材裡,在時間到來之前早就被埋葬了。他們那年輕的遺孀及家人則是滿心悲傷地看著靈柩緩緩落入最後的棲所。這些年輕人的平均年紀是二十四歲,他們的每一顆心則是無聲地嘶喊著,「天啊,這代價實在太高了!」



The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

獻給民國34年(1945)2月27日殉難的羅伊爾-瑪爾斯中尉

(本書作者Chick Marrs Quinn.丈夫)


The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》


民國31-32年(1942-1943)

在民國31年(1942)初的時候,很明顯地日本進攻緬甸即將取得勝利,而中國將要面臨徹底的封鎖。這條能提供涓滴細流補給給中華民國的滇緬公路恐將被阻斷,必須儘快找到一條新的補給路線!唯一的辦法就是空中補給,從印度的基地飛越喜馬拉雅山脈到中國。


民國31年(1942)3月,第1飛送大隊第3飛送中隊正式成立,以從麻塞諸塞州威斯特歐佛空軍基地(Westover Field)第11運輸中隊招募而來的九十名官兵為核心,由同樣來自威斯特歐佛的理查-貝爾登(Richard E. Beldon)少尉擔任指揮官,第3飛送中隊迅速茁壯,此一核心部隊設置於北卡羅萊納州布拉格堡(Fort Bragg)的波普機場(Pope Field)。


第3飛送中隊立即迎來了新血的加入,3月8日上午,這個核心部隊歡迎31名應徵者的到來;包含廚師、轟炸瞄準系統維修技師、動力砲塔人員及飛機武器專家,他們是從科羅拉多州的羅瑞機場(Lowry Field)來的。當天稍後,來自科羅拉多州羅根堡(Fort Logan)陸軍文書學校的30名職員抵達。幾乎每天都有成群結隊的應徵者前來,例如來自伊利諾州查努特機場(Chanute Field)的65名應徵者,以及來自密蘇里州傑佛森營區非常稱職的廚師們;伊利諾州史考特空軍基地(Scott S. Field)來了無線電操作員及維修技師,來自密西西比州基斯勒機場(Keesler Field)的汽車技師與專家則是讓飛送中隊的陣容更加壯大。維吉尼亞州蘭利機場(Langley Field)與麻塞諸塞州威斯特歐佛空軍基地也提供了無線電操作員及氣象專家。3月12日,第一批軍官抵達,包含新任的中隊指揮官唐納德-麥克盧爾(Donald A. McClure)上尉,他是來自步兵的現役資深軍官;也在同一天,空中梯隊啟程前往位在佛羅里達州西棕櫚灘的摩里森機場。


3月17日,這兩個部隊接獲命令移防至南卡羅萊納州的查爾斯頓。到了查爾斯頓港口,部隊發現摩爾-麥克考馬克航運(Moore-McCormack)的郵輪巴西號(BRAZIL)已經改成運兵船,而且已經準備好將他們運送到目的地去了。於是他們從火車站出來,直接行軍到巴西號運兵船上。在3月19日天明之前,陸軍運輸船巴西號起錨,慢慢駛出查爾斯頓港—目的地—大多數人並不知道。


 


1942-1943

Early in 1942 it was clear that the Japanese were going to be successful in their drive into Burma. China would be throughly blockaded. The Burma Road that afforded a route over which a tric- kle of supplies could be delivered to China would be eliminated. A NEW ROUTE HAD TO BE FOUND!. The only solution was by air trans- port, over the Himalayan Mountains from bases in India to China.


On March 1942, the Third Ferrying Squadron, First Ferrying Group came into being. Founded upon a nucleus of ninety enlisted men from the 11th Transport Squadron, Westover Field, Massachusetts, and commanded by 2nd Lt. Richard E. Beldon, also from Westover Field, the third Ferrying Squadron grew rapidly. The cadres were set up at Pope Field, Fort Bragg, North Carolina.


New blood flowed into the squadron immediately. On the morn- ing of March 8th, the cadre welcomed 31 enlisted men; cooks, bomb- sight maintenance men, power gun turret men, and aircraft arm- ament experts from Lowry Field, Colorado. Later during the day, thirty clerks arrived from the Army Clerical School at Fort Logan, Colorado. Enlisted personnel continued to arrive in groups almost daily. Sixty-five men arrived from Chanute Field, Illinois. Jeff- erson Barracks, Missouri, sent the cooks required; from Scott S Field, Illinois, came radio operators and mechanics; from Keesler Field, Mississippi, came auto mechanics and specialists to swell the ranks, Langley Field, Virginia, and Westover Field in Mass- achusetts, contributed more radio operators and some weather experts. On March the 12th the first officers arrived and a new Squadron Commander; Capt. Donald A. McClure, a veteran of active duty in the Infantry, took command. Also on that day the Air Echelon departed for Morrison Field, West Palm Beach, Florida


On March 17th orders were received to move the two outfits to Charleston, S.C. Arriving at the Charleston Harbor, the troops found the Moore-McCormack Liner, BRAZIL, transformed into a troop ship and ready to transport them to their destination. Marching directly from the train onto the Brazil. Shortly before dawn on the 19th of March the U.S.A.T. Brazil weighed anchor and glided out of the Charleston Harbor--destination--unknown to most of the men.


The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

不誇張的說法是,這艘船有些擁擠;床舖略嫌窄小,同時通風不良。這些不利的條件加添船客們的不適,許多從未見過海的人更是處境悲慘。4月3日,巴西號駛入法屬西非位在弗利敦灣(Bay of Freetown)的港口,經過三天的停留之後,再度啟航,於航行十天後抵達了英屬南非聯邦的開普敦(Capetown),在這裡,船上的人第一次踏上了海灘。


僅僅在海上航行一天後,便在同是南非的伊利莎白港(Port Elizabeth)靠岸,六天之後,巴西號告別了這座停靠的港口。


最後,在5月15日下午三點,巴西號在印度克拉蚩的港口拋下船錨。這趟海上旅程總共花了五十八天。


空軍資深軍官克萊門特-米契爾(Clement C. Mitchell, Jr. )上尉成為新的指揮官,8月1日,第3飛送中隊正式被運送至印度上阿薩姆邦(Upper Assam)的察布瓦(Chabua),那天是標誌著指揮官、行政人員及眾多軍官們搭機前往察布瓦的日子。


中隊剩下的其他人員,在兩天的不斷盼望後,終於登上了火車前往察布瓦機場與部隊集合。印度的火車很像我們的連環漫畫《圖納維爾村民》(Toonerville Trolley)裡的車子。這些官兵們有機會以這種方式觀看印度,在這之前,印度對他們來說是既神秘又迷人的國家。他們眼中所見的是綿延不絕的平坦沙漠,如同平原一般,卻是一個破敗荒蕪的地球表面。


近來的大雨造成淹水,稻田裡,水牛與披著粗毛外皮的半餓乳牛混在一起,長癬的長耳駱駝與目光天真的當地居民,彷彿迪士尼彩色電影裡的角色一樣一一通過眼前。而儘管擁擠的火車、無數的蒼蠅和蚊子造成旅途不適,這支部隊卻見識到印度眾多風貌與繽紛色彩、極端的富裕和貧窮、兼具炎熱與酷寒、疾病與髒污的地景,同時也是既美麗又悲慘、奴役與自由隱然可辨卻又遙不可及的迷人大地。


8月11日早晨,疲憊不堪的部隊抵達阿拉哈巴德(Allahabad),直到8月19日被裝上飛機,歷經五個半小時的飛行後,他們抵達了察布瓦。


Conservatively speaking, the ship was somewhat crowded; bunks were small, and ventilation poor. These poor conditions added to the discomfort of the men, many were miserable never having been to sea before. On April 3rd the ship sailed into a harbor in the Bay of Freetown, French West Africa, where it remained for three days. Sailing out again, ten more days were spent at sea before reaching Capetown, Union of British South Africa. Here the men had their first shore privileges.


Only one day was spent at sea before docking at Port Elizabeth, also in South Africa, After six days in the harbor the Brazil said farewell to a port of call.


Finally on May 15th at 3:00 P.M. the Brazil dropped anchor in the harbor of Karachi, India. Fifty-eight days had been consumed during the overwater trip.


A Captain Clement C. Mitchell, Jr. became the new C.0., a vet- eran of the air. On the first day of August the 3rd Sq. was offic- ially transferred to Chabua, Upper Assam, India. That day marked the departure of the Commanding Officer, office personnel and many officers by plane to Chabua.


The remaining members of the squadron, after two days of con- stant anticipation, boarded a train to join the organization at Chabua Field. India's trains were quite like our comic strip "Toonerville Trolley". The men were given an apportunity to view India that way, as yet, a land of charm and mystery to them. Mile after mile of flat desert-like plain, the surface, one of magnif- icent failure, was viewed.


Areas flooded by recent rains, rice paddies, water buffalo mingling with the rough-coated half-starved cows, mangy, long eared camels and wide eyed natives all passed in review like characters in a Disney Technicolor Production. The troops, despite discomfort of the crowded train, numerous flies and mesquitoes, were seeing India a land of varied scenery and lavish color, a land of extreme riches and poverty; a land of heat and cold, of disease and dirt; a fascinating land of beauty and misery; of slavery and freedom dimly sensed, but out of reach.


On the morning of August 11th, the weary troops arrived at Allahabad where they remained until 19 August, when they were load- ed on planes. Five and a half hours later, they arrived at Chabua.


The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

察布瓦機場是阿薩姆邦的第二座機場(丁張|Dinjan是第一座),採用最原始的方式—依靠人力而不採用任何工程設備—興建而成。民國31年(1942)2月開始動工。大約2,600名當地婦女投入由鐵路及布拉瑪普特拉河駁船運到察布瓦的石塊敲碎工作。在竹棚的遮蔭下,她們蹲著雙腳工作,在整個興建工程期間,這些婦女總共敲碎了約1千1百萬立方英呎的石塊。四月份的時候,他們收到了一台碎石機,但是才剛使用即告故障。而千辛萬苦採購的零件最後證明是徒勞無功,而這部碎石機可說是毫無用處。


飛機跑道的柏油是靠苦力的雙手塗上的,最後他們終於收到一輛美國卡車(瀝青噴塗機),工作進度得以加速。民國31年(1942)7月26日,首架C-47降落在這座基地,停留數小時後才離去。


瀝青噴塗機
瀝青噴塗機

這座基地的主要任務是向中華民國進行軍事補給與人員的空運作業,從阿薩姆到中華民國的飛行只能在沒有導航裝置的情況下進行,同時要對抗看不見的敵人,因為天氣良好時,敵人對天空裡的情況一覽無遺,駕駛只能依賴眼前的儀表板來飛越危險的山脈與雲霧繚繞的叢林。


民國31年(1942)9月13日,羅伯特-賽克斯登(Robert C. Sexton)少校接替克萊門特-米契爾上尉成為第3飛送中隊的指揮官。


所有作戰狀態中的C-47 會在天明之前起飛前往中華民國的目的地,會留下最少量的飛機在基地以預防敵人的空襲,察布瓦距離日軍的前進基地僅僅半小時的航程。


九月時,美國防空部隊抵達,並即刻在各戰略位置進行部署。經常舉行射擊訓練,而且是在各種情況下,特別是日軍第一次攻擊之後,當地居民聽見槍砲聲都會驚恐不已。


飛行時間僅限白天的作法一直維持到民國31年(1942)9月中旬,約翰-佩恩(John D. Payne)上尉自願在夜間跨越「巨石堆」(Rockpile,譯註:飛行員對駝峰障礙的另一暱稱)。博德尼少校(Major Bordene)擔任導航員,使用法軍的地圖,從察布瓦出發,前往中國昆明。在從未停歇的亂流進擊及烏雲阻攔夾擊下,佩恩上尉完美地操控飛機並平安地降落在昆明,首趟夜間飛往中國的行動順利完成。


 

Chabua Field, Assam's second airfield (Dinjan being the first), had been built in the most primitive manner--by manpower without enginnering equipment. Work started in early February 1942. Some 2600 native women were engaged in breaking stone brought to Chabua by rail and Brahmaputra River barge. Squatting on their haunches, shaded by bamboo sheds, these women broke approximately 11,000.000 cubic feet of stone during the construction. In April, a stone crusher was received, but broke down immediately. All efforts to procure parts proved futile and the crusher proved to be of little or no use.


The runway was tarred by hand using coolies. Finally an American truck (tar sprayer) was received and work was hastened. On July 26th 1942 the first C-47 landed on the base where it remained for a few hours before departing.


The primary mission of this base was to be the flying of Mili-d tary supplies and personnel to China. The flight from Assam to China would have to be accomplished without the aid of navigational devices, in full view of the enemy when weather permitted, against unseen adversaries; over hazardous mountains and steaming jungle when on instruments.


On September 13th 1942 Major Robert C. Sexton relieved Capt. Mitchell as C.O. of the 3rd Ferrying Squadron.


All the C-47's in operating condition would take off just be- fore dawn for their China destination. An absolute minimum were kept on the ground because of fear of air attacks. Chabua was only a half hour flight from the advanced bases of the Japanese.


In September American-Anti-Aircraft arrived on the field and immediately set up positions in stategic sites. Frequent practice firing was held, and on many occasions, especially after the first Jap attack, the natives upon hearing the firing, would panic.


Flying was limited to the daylight hours until the middle of September 1942, when Captain John D. Payne volunteered to span the "Rockpile" at night. With Major Bordene as a navigator, and using French maps they departed Chabua enroute to Kunming, China. With the ever present turbulence and overcast as foes, Capt. Payne ex- pertly handled the plane and landed safely in China. The first night flight to China had been made.


The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

在民國31年(1942)9月,察布瓦的飛機在從阿薩姆地區飛越駝峰的運輸任務中發揮作用,共計441.7噸的載運量。察布瓦基地精確的貢獻無法得知,因為缺乏足夠的記錄;飛送行動進度緩慢而他們必須超時工作以克服人力短缺的問題。因為記錄的缺乏,所以無法得知民國31年(1942)可用的飛機數量,不過後來抵達察布瓦的人註明有30架飛機,到12月初則共有45架之多。


民國31年(1942)10月(某日)下午2點,約有27架日軍轟炸機在數架戰鬥機的護航下,對該機場進行轟炸與掃射;除了七架飛機遭到攻擊,一處鐵路油料供應站起火,跑道上留下許多空襲後的坑洞,有幾名來自席爾赫特(Sylhet)的苦力被炸死。這些坑坑洞洞立刻被察布瓦當地的工人給填補修復。這場空襲之後,幾乎從席爾赫特來的整群苦力們燒掉了他們所蓋的bashas(譯註:阿薩姆邦一種由竹子及草蓋成的小房子),然後逃走。


之後,在民國31年(1942)10月27日下午1點,日軍二度造訪察布瓦機場;空襲之際,機場有一批武力薄弱、包含800名男苦力及500名女苦力正在工作。敵機來襲完全出人意料,能夠躲避的安全處所極其有限,物品所受的損害不嚴重,但是苦力的死傷相當嚴重。


察布瓦的第一座塔台於10月間完成安裝,設置於跑道東南端尾部的一棵樹上,同時由美國陸軍航空運輸司令部(ATC)及英國皇家空軍(RAF)人員負責操作。


民國31年(1942)12月1日,印華航空運輸指揮司令部正式成立,總部設在察布瓦。


在民國31年(1942)的聖誕節,第一批15架的C-87解放者運輸機飛抵察布瓦,此時,其它機場如默漢巴里(Mohanbari), 蘇克瑞汀(Sookerating)也正式開放。民國32年,當喬爾哈特(Jorhat)及泰茲普爾(Tezpur)機場開始運作之際,察布瓦再度無法避免提供相關器材與設備的命運,雖然後來這些東西都歸還了,但也已經損耗到無法使用的地步了。


C-87解放者運輸機
C-87解放者運輸機

民國32年(1943)一整年,我們的機組人員在飛越駝峰時的飛行時裝備極度缺乏;合適的服裝會滲漏,而且通常所需要的服裝根本不存在。許多機組人員在沒有氧氣輔助的情況下進行跨越駝峰的任務,氧氣面罩很難取得,而且氧氣必須從加爾各達(Calcutta)空運而來。後來在阿薩姆邦設立了製氧工廠,但是工廠不只一次發生爆炸,導致我們的飛機停飛或不得不在沒有氧氣輔助的情況下進行飛送任務。


 

During September 1942 Chabua's planes played their part in the transporting of 441.7 tons from Assam area over the Hump. Chabua's exact contribution is not known, as records are lacking. Operations moved along at a slow pace while the men worked long hours to over- come the shortage of personnel. Lack of records prohibits the giv- ing of the number of aircraft available during 1942. However, men that arrived later, place the figure at thirty planes, with a total of forty-five in early December.


At 1400 hours on October 1942 approximately 27 Jap bombers, ac- companied by several fighters, bombed and strafed the field. In ad- dition to seven planes being hit, a railway gas dump was set on fire; craters were left in the runway and a few coolies from Sylhet, were killed. The craters were filled in immediately by local native la- borers. Almost the entire group of coolies from Sylhet burned their bashas and left after the raid.


Then on October 27th 1942 at 1300 hours, the Japs paid their sec- ond visit to the field; at the time of the raid a reduced force of 800 men and 500 women coolie laborers were at work. The enemy air- craft had achieved the element of surprise, and little was had for the securing of shelter. Material damage was slight, but many of the coolies were killed and wounded.


Chabua's first control tower was installed during October, perched up in a tree at the southeast end of the runway, it was operated by both the ATC and the RAF personnel.


On December 1st 1942 the India China Air Transport Command came into being with Chabua as leadquarters.


On Christmas day of 1942 the first fifteen C-87's arrived at Chabua. By this time other airfields were opening up, there was Mohanbari, Sookerating. In 1943 when Jorhat and Tezpur went into operation Chabua once again had to bear the brunt for supplying much of the equipment. In all cases the equipment was later re- turned, but was almost worn beyond use.


All during 1943 our crews flew the "Hump" with very little flying crew equipment. The proper clothing dribbled in and usually the clothing necessary was non-existent. Many crews spanned


The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

民國32年(1943)5月,第一架(寇蒂斯)C-46運輸機報到,但是零件備料馬上成為燙手山芋;在民國32年(1943)中,由於零件短缺的問題非常嚴重,不得不停飛半數的飛機


由於補給是需要克服的主要障礙,飛越駝峰時所遭遇的天氣變數帶來諸多問題:例如飛機失蹤、性命喪失,不過還是有些機組人員運氣夠好能夠跳傘脫困。完成飛送任務的組員提到了嚴重的結冰狀況導致引擎熄火,狂暴的氣流將飛機像羽毛般吹來飄去;其它的原因還有急劇變化的高速狂風、暴雪、混著泥沙的髒雪,還有各種狀況的可怕組合等等。


民國32年(1943)9月下旬,哈利-任蕭(Harry N. Renshaw)上校繼任指揮官,許多故事都流傳著他對官兵們的體貼關心,特別是對那些招募來的人。他真的是被他下面的人所愛戴。12月19日,從德里(Delhi)返回的任蕭上校於飛機失事中喪生。無線電操作員們揭露上校當時正在進行其它的飛行檢定。所以說民國31年及32年的整個行動曲線圖顯示的是穩定上升的趨勢,日軍在民國32年(1943)僅實行過一次空襲,那是二月的事;飛機有所損失,但整體而言破壞不算太嚴重。經過駝峰所運輸的補給共一萬兩千噸,超過了第十四航空隊司令官陳納德准將所設一萬噸的目標,而且大部份是在補給、物資及人力都十分短缺的那一年所完成的。雖然裝備有限,但所有人都長時間地賣力工作—地勤人員必須隨時待命等候一架飛機的維修作業完成,這樣為數不多的工具才能被其它飛機使用。飛送隊的職員必須利用排版或剪貼方式印製文件因為打字機極度缺乏。環伺隊員們的是增援部隊的缺乏、瘧疾和極高的濕氣,同時依然得在阿薩姆炙熱的陽光下或是滂沱大雨中,賣力勞動而沒有遮蔽。 除了悲慘的條件外,所有其它的一切都補給短缺,燈泡時不時會熄滅,有時會缺水而無法洗澡;不過戰事還在進行中,我們依然想盡辦法向成功邁出第一步,以艱辛的方式。


 

the routes without oxygen. Oxygen masks were difficult to obtain, and oxygen had to be flown in from the Calcutta area. Later an oxygen plant was set up in Assam but it blew up on more than one occasion resulting in our planes being grounded or necessitating flying without oxygen.


May 1943 saw the arrival of the first C-46's, spare parts im- mediately became a problem. In the middle of 1943, the parts short- age was so acute, that it almost became necessary to ground 50% of our aircraft.


With supply as the main obstacle to overcome, the weather en- countered over the Hump presented many problems. Planes disappeared; lives were lost, but some crews were fortunate enough to bail out to safety. Crews returning from flights told of the severe icing con- ditions causing engines to cut out, because of the fury of the tur- bulence which tossed the planes about like a feather; due to the fast changing high velocity winds, heavy snowfall, and slush, also terrific buildups, etc.


Late in September 1943 Col. Harry N. Renshaw became commanding Officer. Many stories were told of his thoughtfulness toward his men particularly the enlisted men. He was truly loved by every man under him. On December 19th Col. Renshaw was killed in a plane crash while returning from Delhi. The radio operators tell the story that he was in quest of additional ratings for them. So the years 1942 and 1943 ended with the operational graphs showing a steady trend upwards. There was only one raid carried out by the Japanese in 1943, it was in February. Aircraft were lost, but damage on an overall basis was not too serious. Twelve Thousand tons of supplies went over the Hump surpassing the goal of 10,000 tons as set by Brig. General Chennault, Commanding General of the 14th Air Force. Much was accomplished during the year despite shortages of supply, ma- terials and manpower. All personnel worked hard and long hours with limited equipment -- ground crews had to stand by to wait for maintenance for one plane to be completed so that the few tools could be used on their planes. Clerks had to PRINT letters because of the dire need of typewriters. The men were beleaguered by lack of re- inforcements, malaria, high humidity, and had to toil in the scorching Assam sun or the torrential rains without cover. Everything was in short supply, except miserable conditions, lights would go out; at times there was not enough water for bathing. But there was a war going on and we were still trying to get to first base, the hard way..


The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

美國陸軍航空隊官方照片

一條失去而後收復的公路。此圖正好從雲南驛東邊一萬三千英呎高空飽覽滇緬公路之一部。橫越著名的駝峰航線的空中運輸飛行所運補的戰爭物資超過了利用這條蜿蜒險峻的山路所運送的數量。


Oficial USA. A. F. photo

A road lost and won. Detail of a section of the Burma Road just east of Yunnanyi from altitude

of 13,000 feet. The wings of air transportation over the famous "Hump" route came to supply

more material of war than ever traversed this devious mountain highway.


The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》


致謝

本書之完成得力於許多的協助,在此我想誠摯地表達我的謝意。

*社團法人駝峰飛行員協會

*社團法人駝峰飛行員協會出版《空運中國》第一、二集

*社團法人駝峰飛行員協會執行秘書簡-泰絲(Jan Thies)

*中緬印戰區飛行員暨作家法蘭克-羅斯(Frank Roth)

*中緬印戰區飛行員暨作家亞瑟-蘇頓(Arthur W. Sutton)、中緬印戰區飛行員暨作家威廉-史密斯(William E. Smith)

*《中緬印戰區簡報|CBI Roundup》前老闆暨編輯狄威特-金恩(Dwight O. King)

*華盛頓特區國家檔案館;加州諾頓空軍基地

*時代-生活雜誌,民國33年(1944)的飛機失事照片

*感謝所有回覆我信件、詢問電話的人,還有特別來看我的那些人,他們帶來分享的不單是令人感動的回憶,同時還有飛行日誌和照片。

*漫畫飛機圖片,取自民國32年(1943)飛機年鑑,以及古魯曼(Grumman)、道格拉斯(Douglas)、共和(Republic)、洛克希德(Lockheed)、寇蒂斯(Curtiss)、伏爾提(Vultee)、波音(Boeing)及統一(Consolated)航空。

*阿拉巴馬州麥斯威爾空軍基地、歷史中心(Historical Center)麥克-莫斯高(Michael G. Moskow),關於中緬印戰區研究

*理查-柯森伯格(Richard H. Kurzenberger),飛行員,印度喬爾哈特

*法蘭克-賴彼特(Frank K. Rabbitt),分享資訊與照片,非常特別的一個人


 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This book has had many contributors for whose help I would like to express my thanks.


* Hump Pilots Association, Inc.

* H.P.A." China Airlift" Books I and II.

* Jan Thies, Executive Secretary, H.P.A.

* Frank Roth, CBI Pilot and Author

* Arthur W. Sutton, Jr. CBI Pilot and Author William E. Smith, CBI Pilot and Author

* Dwight O. King, Owner & Editor, Ex-CBI Roundup

* The National Archives, Washington, D.C. Norton Air Force Base, CA

* Time-Life Magazine, 1944 picture of plane crash.

* To all that answered my letters, phone calls of inquiry, and especially, the ones who came to see me, bringing with them not only their wonderful memories to share, but they also brought their log books and pictures.

* Cartoon plane drawings, from Aircraft Year Book 1943, also Grumman, Douglas, Republic, Lockheed,Curtiss, Vultee, Boeing, Consolated.

* Maxwell AFB, AL. Historical Center Michael G. Moskow, for CBI Research

* Richard H. Kurzenberger, Pilot, Jorhat India

* Frank K. Rabbitt, For sharing information, and pictures. A very special person.


The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

The Aluminum Trail - China Burma~India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail - China Burma~India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

左側為約翰-昆茲(John F. Kuntz)中士,兵籍號碼 12039907

右側為雷蒙-米爾斯(Raymond A. Mills)上士,兵籍號碼 12040009

昆茲中士於民國33年(1944)5月25日陣亡,頁146。

照片攝於他們位在印度丁張(Dinjan)的小屋前,民國33年(1944)年初,米爾斯上士倖存。


 

On the Left S/S John F. Kuntz, 12039907

On the Right T/Sgt. Raymond A. Mills, 12040009

S/Sgt. Kuntz, was killed 25 May, 1944 Page 146.

Picture taken early 1944 at Dinjan, India in front of their Basha. Sgt. Mills Survived.


The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

民國77年(1988)7月22日星期三

親愛的綺克,


只是想寫個短信跟你說聲「謝謝」,讓我知道關於我「多年好友」戴夫-哈欽森(DAVE Hutchinson)的訊息。我還是無法相信在44年之後竟然能獲知關於我的朋友約翰-昆茲跟戴夫的消息,這些年來我一直掛在心上,真的感謝你,知道事情真相後我感到放鬆了,知道他們不僅僅是在任務中失蹤(M.I.A.)。


再次感謝,我會常常記得你,若我有任何可以幫助你之處,千萬別客氣!


雷-米爾斯 謹上


 

Wednesday July 22, 1988

Dear CHICK,

"Just A few lines to SAY "THANK YOU" for All the information on my friend of "Long Age"– DAVE Hutchinson. I still can't believe, that After 44 years I finally FOUND out about my Friends, JoHu KUNTY AND DAVE. THIS HAs been on my mind FOR All THESE years AND THANKS to you I AM SOME What Relieved to KNOW THAT THE FACT, WERE Discovered AND THAT They WERE NOT Just A M.I.A "

Again, THANK you, I will Always Remember you AND IF I EVEN CAN be & Help to You in Any Way - Please ASK ME!!!

Sincerely,

Ray Mills


The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》


C-109運油機
C-109運油機

About This Book

I have asked myself many times, why did you spend 9½ years, searching through over 60,000 pages of Government documents, trying to piece together the facts surrounding the aircraft crashes in the China-Burma-India theatre in World War II ?. The only answer is, I HAD TO DO IT.


It took me over forty years to get the facts about my husband's crash, 1st Lt. Loyal S. Marrs Jr. He was killed on his 56th round trip over the "Hump", on February 27th 1945. He was fly- ing a C-109, ( a modified B-24 ), that was carrying 3875 gallons of gasoline.


The first crew to take this plane out on that fateful day, was piloted by Lt. Richard H. Kurzenberger, the following is his statement.


I and my crew were next to the last to fly number 2000. We had a trip to Chengtu, China, from Jorhat, India. Weather was no pro- blem and we had a clearance for the north route "A", our depart- ure was about dusk, and climbing out to our assigned altitude upon reaching about 19,000 feet over approximately Fort Hertz, my radio operator Wayne Armstrong, came up front and asked that I come back to his station right away. He pointed out gasoline spraying out of the trailing edge of the wing. I immediately did a 180 and reduced the power for a let down back to our field. Our arrival back at Jorhat was not a welcome one, in that in those days, if you turned back, it was like desertion. The expediting officer got into the aircraft, ran up the engines and said that everything was OK, and for our crew to report to the Commanding Officer in the morning. He had the tanks topped off and called out another crew, to take this flight, they got off around 11 P.M. The following morning Number 2000 was missing in flight. We thought we had done the right thing to save an aircraft as well as a crew. I don't remember the crew that disappeared on that flight, my crew and I watched the plane number 2000 as it took off, we just stood there in silence, knowing that we wouldn't see it or the crew again. End of statement.


The crew that was called out was my husband's, this was to be his last flight. It wasn't until 1986, that Lt. Kurzenberger and I contacted each other, and we met this past summer (1989) when he and his lovely wife Edna, came by to see us, from their home in Horseheads, N. Y. During the years of research, I was contacted by many people, who lost a loved one in the C.B. I. and I was privileged to have the opportunity to share with them, information I had acquired through the years, Facts about their loved ones plane crashes and deaths. When I would receive a letter of thank you from a brother, father, sister or child, telling me how much it meant to them to know the truth, as many put it" What really Happened" to their Sons, Brothers and etc, It was then that I really knew, I had cast my bread upon the waters and it had come back to me, with Butter and Jam on it.


The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》

I owe so much to so many that have shared information with me, about their loved ones that is included in this book, There are too many to list but they already know how much I appreciate what they did.


One thing the reader must understand, there were very few reports filed for aircraft lost before June of 1943 and the reports were not filed for All, aircraft lost. There can never be a complete book of all aircraft and all crews lost in the C.B.I. This information does not exist. The hardest part was trying to get the names spelled correctly. In so many cases they were spe- lled, sometimes three different ways. So there will be some names that are not correct. In almost all cases the Army Serial Numbers will be correct. The quality of the Micro-Film and the Micro-Fiche was at times very difficult to read. But from the beginning I knew this would not be easy.


So I will leave you with something my Mother told me. "If you always do your very best, you will owe no one an apology."

The Aluminum Trail  China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》
The Aluminum Trail China-Burma-India World War II 1942-1945 - How & Where They Died By Chick Marrs Quinn, 1989(民國78年出版)《Black Water Museum Collections | 黑水博物館館藏》


1945

President Truman gave the order to drop the "Atomic Bomb" called "Little Boy" the word came that it could be dropped after August 3rd 1945. The city of Hiroshima, was selected as the primary target. Other cities mentioned in the orders were Kokura, Niigata and Nagasaki. The people of Japan had grown accustomed to seeing small formations of B-29's passing over harmlessly on reconnais- sance flights. But today was a very special day. This was to be a day of retaliation for every young man who had died in this war from Pearl Harbor to the fetid jungle of Burma, this beautiful B-29 the "Enola Gay" was carrying "Little Boy" the answer to many an American prayer. On August 6th at 8:15 A.M. (Hiroshima Time) from an altitude of 31,600 feet, the "Enola Gay" birthed her BABY BOY in downtown Hiroshima. For generations yet unborn the day of his coming would be told and retold. He would not be soon forgotten. Three days after the destruction of Hiroshima, "FAT MAN" was put into the bomb bay of a B-29 named Bock's Car, at 10:58 A.M. (Nagasaki Time) "FAT MAN" made his debut. He was said to have been brighter than a thousand suns, and in a flash, thirty to forty thousand Japs gave their all for their Emperor. The war was fin- ally over, the men would be coming home at long last, families would be reunited. Others would arrive in caskets, to be buried long before their time. Their young widows, and family members would stand with broken hearts while the caskets were lowered to their final resting place. The average age of these young men would be 24 years, and every heart screamed silently, "MY GOD! THE PRICE WAS TO HIGH".

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